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Local Connections - USA => Hawaii => The Islands => Going Natural - Fitness the old school way. => Topic started by: Gregg HIPK on July 09, 2009, 04:26:23 PM

Title: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
Post by: Gregg HIPK on July 09, 2009, 04:26:23 PM
April 2009: After APK announced that the Practical Guide was available on Google, I started translating it for HIpk. I wrote to Muse, but she was insanely busy, and not able to work on it until the summer.

I tried to find other people who could translate, but didn't hook up with Pilou. Pilou ended up doing a great translation - much better than mine. You can find it at

I'll include the parts I translated that Pilou didn't, plus some of the discussion we had on the HIpk board
Title: Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
Post by: Gregg HIPK on July 09, 2009, 04:28:19 PM
MN, Methode Naturelle, Natural Method, MovNat, etc. => Going Natural => Topic started by: Gregg on April 14, 2009, 11:54:38 AM

Title: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
Post by: Gregg on April 14, 2009, 11:54:38 AM,M1

Google books has a copy of Georges Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education". It's in French... so I can read it a little. By cutting and pasting into Google translate, you'll get a fast and dirty idea of it...

I already see that this is an earlier version of MN: It only has 8 of the 10 basics: "walking, running, jumping, swimming, climb, the lift, the  launch [throwing?], the defense by the natural means;" leaving out quad movement and balance...

Also, google translate is imperfect. "11 ne faudrait cependant pas s'imaginer que les exercices qui font partie de notre méthode sont absolument nouveaux." was translated "11 should, however, to imagine that the exercises that are part of our method are absolutely new." So "IL" instead of "11" and they left out one very important word... --> "He should NOT imagine..."

I'm not going to read it today. I've heard it's a pretty long, involved book. 500 pages or so. Oog.

Title: Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
Post by: Shiloh on April 14, 2009, 12:29:19 PM
Very interesting find G, now I wish someone could translate.  Argh

Its like getting a nice car without the keys.  lol

Title: Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
Post by: Gregg on April 14, 2009, 02:01:07 PM

It's Google translate, so it's a bit off... Sometimes the scanner read letters as numbers, or numbers as letters, or forgot a punctuation that changes meaning completely. If something doesn't make sense, keep reading. Hopefully it will make more sense in context.

Title: Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
Post by: Sala "MonsieurMonkey" on April 14, 2009, 03:51:58 PM
ill read it when i have the time to copy/paste everything haha
i dislike it when translaters are off, it just screws things up totally sometimes

Title: Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
Post by: Gregg on April 14, 2009, 04:51:44 PM
Follow the DRIVE AWAY link in previous message. It's 80% understandable. I read the first 40 pages then skimmed the original book to page 535. Some scanned pages are severely screwed up :(

Here is the basic adult >18 years old
[This was really messed up in the translation - there's a scaled rating/ measurement system? It's scattered later in the book. Not organized. ]

high jump no dash = 0.8 m
high jump with dash = 1 m
long jump no dash = 2 m
long jump with dash = 3 m
rope climb without help of legs = 5 m

run 100 m = 16 sec
run 500 m = 1:40
run 1500 m = 6 minutes

Lift with 2 hands a rock or weight of 40 kgs 1 time
Throw a weight of 7.25 kgs 5 m

Swim 100 m = 3 min
Swim: diving underwater = 10 sec

20 km in 4 hours [flat terrain with no load]

Title: Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
Post by: Shiloh on April 15, 2009, 12:22:05 AM
Thanks G.  At least we know the different areas he tested in. Cool.  ;)

Title: Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
Post by: Gregg on April 15, 2009, 11:46:54 AM
The book has an amazing amount of pictures for 1916. I wonder how they managed to publish something like this in the middle of World War I ?!?! Maybe he was hoping to use it as a training tool?

Here's how to swim with your rifle. Here are different ways to rescue a fallen soldier.
Run on top of a 4m [at least] wall to overcome vertigo. Ropes. Walls.

Time to break out my metric tape measure...

Title: Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
Post by: Ozzi on April 15, 2009, 04:29:12 PM
Funny you mentioned that today.

I had the guys at the class do a lil fear battling by walking on a wall which ground went from 3 feet to the stair area where the stairs went down and the drop was about 10ft. Not quite 4mts though.

Title: Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
Post by: Shiloh on April 16, 2009, 01:34:41 AM
Something I should maybe start?

I have vertigo.   I've gotten more confident on higher structures since starting PK, but still get the physical diziness while looking down, then lose equlibrium right after.  With PK its helped me focus on whats ahead instead of my fear of falling.

I've never tried running on a high wall yet.  Highest running was 3' lol.  So goal is 13'.  ;)

Just got thru lookin at the Pictures.  Amazing G.  I really wanna know translation now. hehe
Title: Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
Post by: Gregg HIPK on July 09, 2009, 04:34:12 PM
Sweet, no matter how appalled they may be, we will be very greatful.  It might not be the cleanest translation like you said, but we like getting dirty dont we. lol.

I saw some of the book pictures Erwan posted on MovNat, I liked the "course" idea.   I made a city course here in Wailuku.  My goal is to be able to sprint the whole thing in good time.  Im still walking. lol.   I can keep adding things once it starts feeling more natural.   Its pretty cool to  map and practice a few different escape routes too.

Title: Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
Post by: Gregg HIPK on July 09, 2009, 04:39:54 PM
Oh shoots!

Sorry APK people... I have my posts at HIpk in "Show most recent first" so the sections got out of order. I'll try to get it in right order later this afternoon.
Title: Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
Post by: Ozzi on July 09, 2009, 04:45:31 PM
Awesome job, Gregg. Thanks so much.
Title: Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
Post by: Gregg HIPK on July 09, 2009, 05:16:54 PM
FOREWORD [The stripped down parkour version]

Goal: Teach physical development through the most effective, fastest and simplest way.

This isn’t theoretical. It’s been tested over 5 years. The methods are not new: Flexing and extending the limbs and trunk, running, jumping, swimming and so on.

Our approach includes:

1: Eight essential utilities: walking, running, jumping, swimming, climbing, lifting, throwing, and unarmed combat.

2: Preparatory: Exercises with good effects on the different parts of the body: Simple and combined movements of the arms, legs, and trunk, allowed by the normal play of joints, suspensions, supports, balances, jitter, respiratory movements;

3: Complementary: Games, sports of all kinds, and the most common manual labor.

The eight utilities don’t have the same importance. It is evident that the exercises which develop resistance force by augmenting the power of the heart and lungs are the most useful and practical. Running is the primary exercise in our system.
   Elementary education exercises develop the body, but don’t misunderstand or exaggerate their value. They produce many of the effects of the utilities, but are insufficient by themselves to permit full physical development.
   You don’t get the coordination needed to practically apply by analyzing muscles and organs.
   Games, sports, and manual labor complete the method and provide the means to learn all the branches of physical activity.
--- --- ---
   Our method of work is very simple and practical. It is appropriate for everyone. It is applicable everywhere: it doesn’t require special installations. It depends more on the manner in which it is taken, the wise use of the resources, location and terrain we have.
Title: Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
Post by: Gregg HIPK on July 09, 2009, 05:19:22 PM
[Continuing forward with the foreword]

   Training for the resistance to cold and to weather… This training is done naturally by working topless as often as possible, and taking air baths in all seasons. The air bath is a powerful means of hardening at the same time maintaining health. After the excellent results we’ve seen, we can’t recommend it too much.
   In summary, our method is essentially practical, and tends to form strong beings capable of executing all the utility exercises and possessing a minimum degree of aptitude in relation to their age and constitution. We define this minimum degree in a precise fashion.

--- --- ---

   Determining physical aptitude and recording the results.
   It’s indispensable to know at any time a subject and to have a clear idea of his physical power or absolute general force.
   We created a form to register the results of twelve classic tests, listed according to a determined level of aptitude. The twelve tests are combined so that together we can determine in a sufficiently precise fashion, and evaluate numerically, the general physical worth or degree of physical aptitude of a particular subject.
   If one considers that the principle elements of physical power, or absolute general force are: resistance force, muscular strength itself, the skill and also the nervous and moral energy, it is very evident that such a determination or evaluation, presented in numeric form, is a difficult problem to solve.
   We don’t claim to have the solution, nor the defining formula to evaluate the power of the human machine. But this form gives a fairly accurate measure of physical aptitude.
   Only long experience permits the modification or completion of this form and awards the coefficients of each test.
   Examining the tests of the form shows that:
   1st The resistance force is evaluated by five tests: 100 m run [speed], 500 m run [speed and endurance], 1500 m run [endurance];

Google messed up the scan - next page should talk about the tests, but it's the Title Page again.
Title: Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
Post by: Gregg HIPK on July 09, 2009, 05:20:33 PM
!!! Mahalo nui loa to BionicGrape for scanning the missing pages for me.

the 100 meter swim [speed and endurance]; diving under the water [respiratory power]. Likewise, executing them in the same day, as demanded by the series of twelve tests, also makes the subject’s force of resistance intervene;
2- Muscular strength is represented by lifting weight with two hands, throwing the weight, and climbing the smooth rope.
3 – Skill, agility, flexibility, the coordination of movements are given by the four types of jumps: standing high jump, running high jump, standing long jump, and running long jump, and equally by the running and swimming.
4 – The energy qualities are found in the execution of the series of the twelve tests without failure, on the contrary, by giving each of them maximum effort.
The choice of tests is made to give the resistance force and agility priority over muscular strength.
Otherwise said, to the equality of muscular strength, the more resistant and the more agile of the two subjects submitted to the tests obtains a superior total number of points. This is logical and corresponds to our definition of a strong and complete man; strength lives more in the heart and lungs than in the muscles.
  If one has still not perfected that formula of physical power, the card-type is, in all cases, a very practical way to control and observe the results. It permits the easy following of progress, to direct the work in the conventional sense, to uncover all the weak points of the education. Each subject can not chase his physical education without periodically submitting to the twelve classic tests which permit deduction of the value of his general physical state and the importance of his progress. The card-type is at the same time the control instrument of the work accomplished and the device to register the results obtained. It is the major guide of the instructor and the student.

In short, the card-type presents the following advantages:
1 – It marks the physical aptitude, that which has for immediate consequence takes the results and
the palpable progress, essential conditions for that one instruction is interested.
2 – It clearly states the qualities which characterize a strong and complete man, and gives a fair idea  of that which makes up strength. It removes the all prejudiced point of view. It has at the same time a practical signification. The subject who succeeds at the series of twelve tests proves at the same time his aptitudes in the most important natural exercises: He can run (and walk), jump, swim, climb, lift and throw.
3 – It provides for each test, the aptitude levels which give the precious indications to students and masters. The figures indicated by the notation of performances are established for the average of the weakest subjects;
4 – It shows, by age, the minimum degree of aptitude to be possessed to not be a physical nothing.
5 – It obliges to neglect nothing in the research of the qualities which make up physical development; It prevents all absolute specialization.

Having proposed this, one is all surprised to see the champion specialists of all kinds put on notice to prove their skills through the implementation of the twelve tests, present a general physical value very low, even more often lower than subjects who only have average skills in all. Why be a champion jumper or a special team member in any game, if you can not climb or swim?

   6 We differentiate the subjects by giving them an idea of their value, not by a simple sentimental appraisal as is done in almost all gymnastics competitions or examinations, but by executing a series of measurable tests.
   When several subjects receive equal ratings, from a general physical value, then we use the defense exercises, boxing and wrestling, to differentiate them. In a word, with equal general physical values, the stronger is the winner in the defense exercises.

   7° It immediately creates emulation by clearly indicating the concrete goal to achieve, in giving everyone the measure of their value and finally proving their low uselessness, which excites their self-esteem.
--- --- ---

   Our method is designed and developed in such a way that with the concepts contained in the book, and without possessing superior physical skills or special knowledge, it is perfectly possible to teach or to conduct exercises in a very rational manner.
   The role of the educator is certainly very delicate: It can not just be filled by men prepared for the job with a profound knowledge of anatomy, physiology, hygiene, and the science of the mechanics of movement. They must be, in addition, skillful and experienced practitioners. This category of specialists is still extremely rare.
   It is evidently necessary to take education in an enlightened direction, to make progress and help form professors and instructors. But under this pretext that these are the type of educators we need, we should not believe that physical education presents insurmountable difficulties and remains the exclusive domain of specialists. We argue, however, that those who have care of souls: parents, teachers, professors, officers, directors of companies and so forth., may well, with our book, enable them to conduct the physical exercises.
   It is sufficient that they want to take the trouble to penetrate to the bottom of the spirit of the method and that they have the firm determination to exercise themselves. They will soon see that there is no need to be an exceptional subject for walking, running, jumping, swimming, etc. to correctly execute most of the exercises.
   They must also be persuaded that with the work first, with care and precautions following, it is possible to achieve excellent results. There is no example of subjects who, having worked with perseverance during the required time, did not come to perfection, if not completely, at least enough.
Title: Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
Post by: Gregg HIPK on July 09, 2009, 05:21:16 PM
The end of the foreword

--- --- ---
   Physical education starts at a young age and is pursued up to the age of man. When perfection is attained one does not rest, but trains in shape and conserves health by proper hygiene and a sufficient dose of exercise.

   There is interest to begin methodical physical education as soon as possible, because children who engage in a good time of physical exercise always become robust men. However, even up to an advanced age, one may make physical re-education with success, but taking the precautions the physician may indicate. The results are obviously less good, but they are no less significant.

   All the genres of indispensable utility exercises may be practiced by children, as long as the work dose is intelligently regulated and a very gentle progression is consciously observed during the execution and especially during the apprenticeship. An exercise, whatever it is, is not violent if we chose to make it so.

   We must not show too much fear about  practicing the utility exercises by young children.
   Indeed, the child has to be put in measure to solve all the circumstances his age will permit. He may need to escape from danger, to bring aid to his one of his comrades, defend himself against an aggressor his age, etc. Very often he researches, by instinct, the exercises with violent reputations.

   Although the Practical Guide to Physical Education is specially written for male subjects, most of the exercises in this book, particularly the basic educational exercises, can be practiced by girls and women.

   Understand that the subjects for training in the principles exposed by us should not have infirmities or serious hereditary defects (hernias, heart problems, etc.). In the letter case, doctors should always be consulted and asked what to do.
--- --- ---

   Finally, we must add that a complete physical education is not limited solely to the teaching and practice of physical exercises of all kinds in our book.
It also includes:
The rules of hygiene and maintenance in shape and good health;
The teaching of physical duties, constituting what might be called "natural morality".
All these parts of education, important because of their influence over the entire existence, should be taught by medical personnel.

   Complete physical education includes the development of moral or manly qualities which are truly of men. For not too much of our book, we have indicated these qualities without examining in detail the best ways to acquire them. But we wish to be very precise on this subject: Moral or manly education is inseparable from the purely physical education.  The school of physical exercises should be at the same time the school of energy, commitment, courage, composure and daring. The teacher must be an example of these qualities; he must struggle against laziness, softness, inaction and must make born in all a love of work and a healthy competitiveness.

   Seek to be strong not only physically but morally. Here is the great duty of man to himself, to his family, his homeland and to humanity. Only the strong will return useful in difficult circumstances of life, dangers, the evils of all kinds, wars, etc.
   When you are in normal physical condition, there is no reason, no excuse to stay feeble since reasoned and methodical work permit you to become strong.

   There is, as noted above, an individual and social duty to fill. We would be very happy if we are able to help this be accomplished in our readers.
Title: Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
Post by: Gregg HIPK on July 09, 2009, 05:23:17 PM
Thank you G.  That was some very helpful information that you uncovered again. ;)

I like what he says about training to withstand cold and weather.

and of course:

 "Seek to be strong not only physically but morally. Here is the great duty of man to himself, to his family, his homeland and to humanity. Only the strong will return useful in difficult circumstances of life, dangers, the evils of all kinds, wars, etc."

--- --- ---
Chapter 1
Definition – bases – goal – Utility of the method in physical education – The natural education and the natural method.

1. Activity is a law of nature.
All living being, obeying the natural need for activity that is in him, comes to a complete physical development by the simple use of his organs of locomotion, its ways of work and defense.
The man in the state of nature, wild for example, forced to lead an active life to support himself, realizes the full physical development by doing only the useful and natural exercises: walking, running, jumping, climbing, lifting, throwing, swimming, defense, etc. and delivers the most common menial labor.

2. Development and achievement is generally adapted to the conditions and needs of the environment in which the individual is forced to move.
The value of this development varies depending on the original skills of the individual, his temperament more or less active, his constitution more or less strong, the climate of the place where he lives, and the challenges he encounters to provide for his needs or to ensure his safety.
3. In the civilized countries, the social obligations, conventions and prejudices which move man away from the natural life outdoors and often prevent the exercise of his activity. His physical development is halted, or even arrested by these obligations or conventions.
Those who are civilized, who daily have the leisure to take and really take a dose of sufficient exercise, in relation to their constitution, can arrive, without any method, to their complete development by simple practice of natural exercises or their derivatives and by the completion of the utility exercises or the most common manual labor. In this they imitate men living in the state of nature, but with the difference that they are pleased by what other people do out of necessity.

4. These subjects are obviously the exception. In general the prejudices, the habits of modern life are such that, in childhood or youth, rather restrained activity is encouraged. On the other hand, the easy existence and comfort encourage physical laziness.
However, we can cite examples of subjects who acquired without method almost complete development. But it should be noted first that these subjects had generally excellent natural dispositions, then that the means employed by them to achieve such a result were mostly games and sports, thus involving walking, running, jumping, swimming, climbing, ie the natural exercises and their derivatives.

5. If, despite its difficulties he encounters, the inhabitant of the civilized country wants, while remaining faithful to the conventions and social obligations, reach a complete physical development, he must be subject to two main requirements:
   1 – Devote daily to the culture of the body enough time;
   2 – Settle the better spending of the time to do nothing useless.
The ideal is to arrive at producing, within the given time or in the minimum time, without harming the organism, a dose of activity roughly equal to that which would be a full day of outdoor life in the state of nature.

Title: Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
Post by: Gregg HIPK on July 09, 2009, 05:24:50 PM
6. The culture of body made in a steady, continuous and progressive manner is physical education. It can be wholly and solely by the natural exercises, without order or method, as has Heu among uncivilized peoples; it is the natural education. In this case, the physical development is acquired haphazard and its final value is highly uncertain. For example, there are poorly developed wild populations.
   Methodical or rational education is quite different. The method, in effect, provides accuracy in the work, it avoids guesswork, rejects everything that is unnecessary and monitors results. It allows you to walk with confidence towards the goal of full physical development.
From there its benefits, especially when the time devoted to the cultivation of the body is limited, and if one considers, on the other hand, the need to combat in a large number of individuals with hereditary defects.

7. Choose exercises according to the knowledge of their effects on the body, classify and regulate their dose is the method in education.
   The uncivilized subject perfected himself, first by imitation, then by using his personal experience; it is a very instinctive action.

   The method, by contrast, helps from the outset the civilized subject by showing him the best principles to follow. It avoids a large number of unsuccessful tests or dangerous personal experiences. It would allow and save time. In addition, it must be noted that the effects of some natural exercises or certain work that is impossible to practice in some cases, may be obtained artificially by well-determined movements.
But the exercises of this kind can never, alone, replace the natural exercises in the open air or have the same value. They are a last resort.

   8. The methodical education methods proposed will produce in the human machine maximum performance or, more simply, it seeks to make strong beings.

   Practically, this means a great health, an energetic character, resistance to fatigue and skills sufficient for the exercises and natural utility exercises. These exercises are eight distinct groups, which are: walking, running, jumping, swimming, climbing, lifting, throwing, and the natural defense (by boxing and wrestling).

   Just think for a moment to understand that these eight sets of exercises are all useful to varying degrees throughout the course of life. Besides them there are only exercises such as fencing, riding, rowing, ... which are of secondary utility or limited to certain categories of people; or games, sports, fancy exercises or acrobatics; but none among them is essential for all individuals, irrespective of profession or class.

   There is, therefore, a general type of rational method or system of human development, which is one that is based on progressive training at work and the consistent practice of the natural and utility exercises.
   We can call it the natural method.
Title: Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
Post by: Gregg HIPK on July 14, 2009, 04:26:09 PM

The educational part and the application part. — Their essential difference — Exercises which make up each of the two parts.

9. Any method of physical education includes:
1. An educational part whose main role is to produce well-determined effects on the body. In particular:
1st Mechanically promote the expansion of the rib cage and give it mobility.
2nd Increase breathing capacity;
3rd Specially strengthen the abdominal muscles
4th Normally develop the whole muscular system:
5th Correct the faults and bad habits: Arched back, drooping shoulders, exaggerated spine curvature;
6th Learn the elements and the main ways to do natural and utility exercises: Walk, run, jump, swim, climb, lift burdens, throw objects, and defense.

 10. II. An application part whose primary role is:
1st  To develop skills at the highest level by wisely using the strength and ability acquired through the practice of the educational exercises.
2nd To give the practical results.
3rd To introduce the means to get by in life.

11. Both parts of the method, having very different roles, are not clearly separated in practice. There is no fixed term for the teaching of the educational component alone. Both enter into effect; education and enforcement can work well together, even in children.
It depends on the constitution, skills, level of training, more or less rapid progress to educate the subject.

12. The educational part can and should be prolonged for a long time for the weak, clumsy, etc.; for those strong, bold, clever and resilient by nature, it is almost useless.
Finally, some subjects don’t need to have the educational part concerning the determined exercises and not at all for others.
The educator must assess the status and value of his subject, to make sure it has all the elements before further education, not to go too fast or march in place; finally do not hesitate to take a step backwards in the educational part.
Title: Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
Post by: Gregg HIPK on July 15, 2009, 01:55:00 PM
13. The educational part includes the following exercises:

  1 The basic classic movements of arms, legs and trunk: elevations, flexions and extensions, and in general all movement allowed by the normal play of the joints.
These movements are made, either hands free or with portable devices, such as small dumbbells, bars, clubs, extensor elastic, etc.
  2 The simple suspensions by the hands, including the horizontal progressions, arms extended or flexed, legs raised or lowered.
The suspensions are made on all kinds of items where the hands can find a grip.
  3 Supports only on the hands or both hands and points of the feet, arms extended or bent.
Supports are done on all kinds of items where the hands can be put down without the legs touching the ground or on the ground even with the help of the feet.
  4 Balance movements on one leg.
  5 Hopping on one or both feet on the spot or moving forward.
  6 The respiratory movements.
  7 The natural locomotion exercises: walking, running, jumping.
Mechanical education of these normal gaits and respiratory education during their execution.
  8 The indispensable utility exercises: swimming, climbing and scaling, lifting burdens, throwing objects, defense.

Learn the best ways of implementing these different exercises.

14. The application part includes:

  1 The natural exercises: walking, running, jumping, performed in increasingly tough conditions:
Longer and faster walks and runs, with all sorts of terrain, flat or hilly;
Jumps and passages of actual barriers.
  2 The essential utility exercises: swimming, climbing and scaling, lifting burdens, throwing objects, defense, also performed under more difficult conditions more difficult or as close as possible to cases that may arise in reality ie:
Practice swimming, being fully clothed; River crossings; Climbing of all kinds; Boxing; Wrestling, etc.
  3 Rescue exercises:
Rescue in the water; Use all kinds of devices or objects to climb; Transporting wounded, etc.
  4 Practice games and all sports starting with the most useful after the indispensible utility exercises. Finally, the most common manual labor.

Sports not indispensable to the utilitarian point of view are not strictly speaking part of a method of physical education. They simply complete a very effective way. It is evident that one can not think to introduce into a method and teach on a regular basis a number of exercises as great as that of sports currently practiced. The taste of the interested parties or their special situation must mainly dictate the choice.

15. In short, any method of physical education practice includes the following exercises:

  1 The basic learning exercises, ie the basic classic movements of the arms, legs and trunk, suspensions, supports, balances, hops and respiratory movements;
  2 The natural exercises and essential utility exercises forming eight groups: walking, running, jumping, swimming, climbing, lifting, throwing, defense;
  3 All games and sports useful or fantasy, in general, and the most common manual labor.
Title: Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
Post by: Gregg HIPK on July 16, 2009, 06:24:06 PM

General rules on the way to work. —What a meeting or lesson of rational work should be. — Choice, order and relative duration of the different exercises constituting a meeting or lesson.

16. The combination of different exercises makes up the method of education, their classification, their order of execution, the relative time devoted to them, the expense of work required, this is the way to work.
In physical education, as in all other matters, the results depend not only on the amount of work but, for the most part, the method of work.

17. It is not possible to define absolutely clearly and precisely what should be the method of work; one can hardly state the guidelines and general principles.
  Too many elements come into account to let everything be set in advance. Age, health of subjects, the job they perform or they are preparing, the circumstances of time or place are all factors that require changing the way to work.
  Some details are left to the discretion of the master or the performer. It is an art to train how to teach and nothing can replace the value and experience of the master, or the enthusiasm and the care taken by the performer.

18. Physical work is usually set by meetings of a fixed period during which one performs a number of exercises.
  The meeting is called lesson when the work is set and led by a teacher or an instructor.

19. Giving or conducting a meeting of rational work or a correct lesson is not a juxtaposition, a gathering of exercises which are executed at random without order or method. It is a logical suite of varied and graduated exercises which interest the different parts of the body according to their relative psysiological importance and which have a practical utility.

20. The order of relative physiological importance of the different parts of the body is:
1° Lungs and heart;
2° Muscles that set the shoulder back, raise the ribs and straighten the curvature of the spine (trapezius, rhomboid and back);
3° Abdominal Muscles;
4° Muscles of the members.

21. The exercises that have practical use are: walking, running, jumping, swimming, climbing, lifting, throwing and defense.
The most important of all is running, both from the practical (development of ability to move fast or long) and physiological point of view (intense development of the lungs and heart, putting in action almost the complete muscular system). It is the basic or fundamental exercise of physical education by the natural method.

22. A work meeting or a lesson is considered complete when the execution of the various exercises that comprise it ultimately produce the following effects: hygienic, aesthetic and utilitarian.
  The hygienic effect is produced, especially by exercises that activate the respiration and circulation, and, in general, the activity during the meeting or lesson.
  The aesthetic effect is produced by the exercises that develop the muscular system and also by those who address the bad attitudes of the shoulder, raise the ribs and get rid of the abnormal curvature of the spine.
  Finally, the utility effect is the result of the execution of doing the practical utility exercises: walking, running, jumping, swimming, climbing, lifting, throwing and defense.

23. As a general rule a complete meeting or lesson is a summary or it must present the plan of all the materials that contribute to physical development.

Practically, the ideal and complete meeting consists of all possible types of exercises:
1° Basic educational exercises: Elementary movements of legs, arms and trunk, suspensions, support, balance, hopping, respiratory movements;
2° Natural and useful exercises: walking, running, jumping, swimming, climbing, lifting, throwing, defense.

24. A meeting should always be as complete as possible.
If it is not possible to do otherwise, do the minimum as follows:
1° “Supple” the members and trunk;
2° Develop or keep fit the muscular system, especially the abdominal and back muscles;
3° Suspensions and supports;
4° Running;
5° Jumping;
6° Breathing.

25. Even in the most unfavorable situations: lack of time, space, material, etc., a meeting or lesson never consists of exercises which cover only part of the body. For example, a meeting of only suspension exercises would only work the upper trunk.
  Only swimming, which brings together all the effects of the complete meeting, is an exception to the rule.
On the other hand, big walks, long distance runs, and some games may also constitute meetings with a sufficiently complete value, in some cases.

26. The order in which you run the exercises that make up the complete meeting is not random; it is based on the expenditure of work or, if preferred, on the violence of successive efforts demanded of the body.
  The meeting always begins with moderate exercises which train the body, it then goes through exercises that require an increasing expenditure of effort and finally it ends with exercises to restore calm in the body.
  Fatigue resulting from the lesson must come from the general work of the whole body, not only the work of one part.

27. There is not an absolute order; It all depends on the importance that we decide to give different exercises, even beyond their violence.
  Some, such as the basic movements of the legs, arms and trunk only produce a low outlay of work regardless of the energy to do them. Their place is at the start of the meeting, or in the course of the meeting as derivatives, to provide a rest after more violent drills.
  Others, however, such as skipping, racing, jumping, etc. put the important parts of the body into action. Their logical place is therefore after less violent exercises when the "organic machine" is sufficiently "heated".

The general rule of work is as follows: gradually increase the effort to produce and stop without abruptness.

28. The total duration of a meeting or lesson varies depending on circumstances.
  In principle, working daily for an hour is sufficient for the education of the body, if this time is used wisely.

29. The relative duration to give different exercises to each other is necessarily very variable. It depends:
On the total duration of the "lesson";
On the violence of the exercises or the fatigue caused to the performers;
On the importance that you want to give some exercises to produce a particular effect.

30. A meeting or lesson, complete or not, must truly represent a sustained and continuous work.
The rest part in the course of the meeting should be kept to an essential minimum.
  In a perfectly conducted meeting, the sequence of exercises is set so that the rest period is reduced to a few seconds. Often, no rest is required. Only the change from one exercise to another must get the body the rest and relaxation essential to continue the work.
Title: Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
Post by: Gregg HIPK on July 19, 2009, 09:05:54 PM
Group of exercises in a series. — Goal or common effects for each series. — Logical order of execution of various exercises.

31. To satisfy the conditions which must be fulfilled in a meeting of rational work [see the previous chapter], the exercises which make up the method are grouped in series.
The exercises of the same series have nearly identical effects on the body or meet the same goal.
There are 7 series. Their methodical order makes up the model plan of the complete meeting or lesson.

32. The following table shows which exercises are in each series as well as their goal or their common effects.

SERIES 1: Exercises:
1. Walks of all sorts.
2. Posture correcting movements
3. Movements to increase flexibility in the arms, legs, and trunk

  Goal: Correct posture and train the body for general flexibility [aesthetic effect].

SERIES 2: Exercises:
1. Basic exercises of the legs and arms, simple or combined, hands free or with equipment.
2. Lifting exercises.
3. Throwing exercises.
4. Defense exercises: boxing and wrestling.

  Goal: General development and symmetry of all the parts of the body. Increase flexibility in the joints of the members [aesthetic effect]. Get dexterity and perfect the aptitudes for defence, lifting and throwing [utility effect].

SERIES 3: Exercises
1. Suspensions
2. Supports
3. Climbing and scaling of all sorts
4. Balancing or exercises to combat vertigo.

  Goal: Particularly develop the muscles of the upper trunk, the abdomen and the upper members [aesthetic effect]. Sense of balance, ability in all sorts of climbing [utility effect].

SERIES 4: Exercises
1. Hopping
2. Speed runs
3. Endurance runs of small distances.

  Goal: Intense action on the large body functions: breathing and circulation [hygeienic effect]. Improvement of the normal paces and training to work.

SERIES 5: Exercises
Special trunk exercises

Goal:  Particular development of the back and abdominal muscles [aesthetic effect].

SERIES 6: Exercises
1. Jumps of all sorts: with and without momentum, with support of the hands, with fixed or mobile obstacles.
2. Speed or endurance runs [as in Series 4].
3. Swimming
4. Games of all sorts, involving running, jumping, wresting, swimming, etc.

  Goal: Same effects as the 4th Series, but with more intensity. All the exercises of this series produce the hygienic, aesthetic and utility effects at the same time.

SERIES 7: Exercises
1. Breathing exercises
2. Walks

Goal: Re-establish order in breathing and circulation. Learn how to breathe.

33. The different movements for a work meeting take place either walking or running.
Walking is preferred:
1° At the beginning of the meeting to set up or accompany the posture corrective movements;
2° In the course of the work, to begin or finish the speed or endurance runs or any other violent exercise and also to accompany the arm movements;
3° Finally, immediately after the breathing exercises or even during their execution.

34. Walking is used in two ways:
1° As a utility exercise for movement, exercise or training;
2° As a derivative exercise to prepare the body for work or restore calm after violent exercise.
In the latter case, preferably walk on the points of the feet.

35. Examination of the model plan shows that the establishment of this plan is consistent with the definition given in the previous chapter, of the complete meeting of rational work. In effect:

1° The different sets of exercises can produce the three essential effects: hygienic, aesthetic and utilitarian;
2° The order adopted for the series is the one that best suits them. This order is based on the principle of increasing efforts, and then decreasing. For example:
  The exercises in Series 1 prepare the body and stretch the members;
  On average, the exercises of Series 4 and 6 require greater efforts than those of Series 1, 2 and 3;
  Series 5 is purposely placed between two sets containing violent exercise (hopping, racing, jumping, etc.) because the exercises in this series require little work and give the body a needed rest, practically characterized by decreased pulse rate;
  Finally the Exercises of Series 7 are likely to restore order in breathing and circulation before resting. They are also done in the course of the meeting when the violence of an exercise makes them useful.
Title: Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
Post by: Gregg HIPK on July 20, 2009, 12:54:18 AM


Type of exercises to be performed. — Complete and incomplete sessions. — Choice and order of the exercises.

36. Composing a complete session or lesson with the model plan means taking one or preferably several types of exercises in each set and executing them in the order of these series.
Ideally, a complete session or lesson must be made from all the exercises of the model plan. Practically, it comprises the successive execution of 12 following types of exercise:

1° Begin training by walking, taking correct posture and extending members and the trunk [SERIES 1]

2° Exercise the muscles of the arms and legs and work all the joints [SERIES 2]
3° Lift                                                                                     “
4° Throw                                                                                 “
5° Wrestle and box                                                                    “

6° Suspensions and supports [SERIES 3]
7° Climb and scale                      “

8° Hop and run [SERIES 4]

9° Exercising especially the back and abdomen muscles [SERIES 5]

10° Jumping                                 [SERIES 6]
11° Swim* (or run or play)                “

12° Breathe                                 [SERIES 7]

* The ideal is obviously to have a river or a pool close to where one exercises in order to do the swimming exercises.

37. The order of execution exercises in a series is not of secondary importance. The exercises of series 2 and 3 may be alternated, because they have roughly the same effect, or answer the same goal.
  In general, for the proper distribution of the work expended and reduction of rest to the minimum two successive exercises or movements should involve different parts of the body.

38. Each type of exercise of the model plan includes several kinds of exercises or movements grouped under the same name.
During a session of suspensions, jumps or trunk exercises, etc., this means doing one or more different suspensions, one or several kinds of jumps, one or more movements of the trunk, etc.. repeating the exercises or movements a certain number of times each.

39. If for any reason [lack of time, lack of location or material, to produce special effect, etc.], the session or lesson can not be complete, ie does not consist of all the kinds of exercises, there is still interest in selecting and classifying the exercises that are composed, according to the methodical order of the model plan.

  For example, a session of jumps and suspensions will be composed of the following:
Preliminary flexibility exercises and the start of training; Suspensions; Jumps; Breathing exercises.

  Suspensions are placed before the jumps, first because they are a less violent exercise and also because they are part of the 3rd series of the model plan, while jumps are classified in the 6th series.
  The preliminary exercises and breathing exercises, given their limited duration, may still be part of a session, even a very short one.

40. The choice of exercises making up a session depends on:
1° The age of the performers;
2° Their constitution or state of health;
3° Their degree of training;
4° The degree of difficulty reached in preceding sessions;
5° The specific result one wants to achieve;
6° Weaknesses that one wishes to strengthen or develop;
7° Climate conditions;
8° Atmospheric circumstances of the moment;
9° The land or equipment that you have, etc.
Title: Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
Post by: Gregg HIPK on July 20, 2009, 02:58:23 PM

How to compose a series of progressive sessions. — Variability of the program following the results. — General and specific training.

41. The regular, methodical and progressive work makes up training, ie the movement towards the ultimate goal of education: get the maximum performance from the human machine. The training must be daily to be effective.

42. The series of progressive training consists of daily sessions or lessons of increasing difficulty.
The difficulty results from the following elements:
1° Choice of increasingly difficult exercises or movements;
2° Total number of exercises and movements making up the session;
3° Relative importance of rest;
4° Total duration of the session.

43. A similar session may also be made more difficult without changing the exercises that comprise it:
1° By seeking more intense and more prolonged efforts;
2° By reducing the partial rests;
3° By increasing the rate or speed of movement;
4° By repeating the same kind of exercises more times in succession;
5° By working with more vigor and energy.

44. The establishment of a training program with sessions of increasing difficulty is the delicate part of the work method. The value of this program will depend on the final results.
  On one hand, it is important to not demand too much from the body to avoid overwork. To do this, it is sufficient to respect the rules of fatigue.
  On the other hand, it must work enough to avoid shuffling in place. If the program is well ordered, there must be progress or at least never have loss after each work session.

45. A training program is based on the immediate effects of certain exercises and the economic conditions of the working muscle.
  Any errors or inversion in the exercises can lead to loss of time, discouragement or unnecessary burnout.
  If the increase is well ordered, the subject naturally and without exaggerated effort reaches the more difficult exercises.
  The inability to perform an ordinary application exercise shows that some preliminary exercises were neglected or not repeated enough.
  For example, in the climbing exercises, to begin with the most difficult recoveries is a serious mistake and a technical error. Climbing smooth rope must precede and prepare this type of exercises. The rope acts on all the muscles working in the "climb". Initially, help from the legs permits training these muscles gradually, even in the weakest subjects.
  Similarly, the various application jumps must be carried out when the legs are sufficiently prepared and landings assured by doing classic ordinary jumps.
  Speed and energy grow naturally in the performance of lively relaxation exercises, etc. 


46. A training program demands to be reasonable. Its grand lines are always established in advance, but everything is modifiable after the circumstances.
The best is to specify the exercises to be executed and to fix the goal to achieve yearly, monthly, weekly, and daily.

47. A well-ordered program can submit to very important modifications, each time they are deemed necessary. It is a question of experience and of the dexterity of the part of that which has been established.
The observation of the results and the progress accomplished serves at the same time as a reference point and indicates to orient the program or direct it such and such way.

48. Do not confuse general training with particular training for certain types of exercises. Educating a physical subject consists of developing in a complete fashion, not to specialize in a single genre.
Specialization is not complete rational education; It can not make that one time the education achieve.

49. In other times, all who pursued general education, one can lay aside certain exercises with the intention to return back either at a more favorable time, or in a more proper place.
Certain exceptional subjects may occasionally engage in particular training for a short time, to condition how their general education would not suffer them.

50. The general training, after the progressive work meetings, is always a mix of games and sports of all sorts where the execution is not possible during the special time consecrated to body development.
It is an essential complement of the regular and daily meeting which permit direct application of the qualities aquired by the methodical work.

CHAPTER VII [I had previously done one page of this]

Usefulness of observing the results. – How to observe the results by periodic tests. – Measure of physical aptitude. – Physical aptitude insufficient or null, inferior, average, superior, and exceptional. – Minimal performances which characterize physical aptitude of the complete athlete. – Model of the individual card.

51. The periodic observation of the results is essential to have precise indications of the value of the work accomplished, and the efficiency of the method used.

52. This observation is effective for comparison. The difference in value of performances or exercises accomplished in two different times practically gives the value of the results acquired.


53. The general physical aptitude can be measured by a certain number of tests listed on a scale given and made to intervene, in group or separately, muscular strength, skill, and force of resistance. The tests needed to determine this measure of general physical aptitude should at least be composed of the following exercises:
1 – Jumps (give the measure of agility, flexibility, and the release of the lower members);
2 – Speed and endurance runs (organic resistance);
3 – Climbing a smooth rope (muscular strength of the upper trunk, arms and abdomen);
4 – Throwing a weight (dexterity, coordination of movements)
5 – Lifting a weight with two hands (general muscular strength);
6 – Swimming (muscular strength, force of resistance, dexterity and flexibility).

54. The more the number of tests is considerable, the more the measure of the physical aptitude is precise.
To mark this measure, the performances of each test are given in points after a scale established in the following fashion:
The performances correspond to number of points, zero indicates a minimum that every adult at least 18 years old of average health should reach to be considered “to get by”. It is essential that the practice of application exercises lets one attain the minimum as rapidly as possible.
The performances corresponding to 3 points characterize subjects developed and trained in a superior fashion.
The performances corresponding to 5 points characterize subjects with exceptional aptitudes or specialists who have practiced physical exercises for a long time.
Finally, by continuing the indicated scale, the performances of 12 to 15 points correspond approximately with records established by elite subjects, approaching the limits of human power.

55. To keep the measure of a subject’s aptitude and to follow his progress, one needs to make a card for him comprised of a certain number of varied tests and his score.
The card-type is made of 12 tests. However one may have a sufficiently exact indication of the aptitude for a number of tests much less.
The table on page 28 shows which of the 12 tests the card-type and the number of points attributed to each performance. *
* The system of the measurable tests and the model of the card-type that we have personally established and put in practice at the School of Marine Riflemen has been officially approved and made regulation of the Marines.

56. The aptitude value is given by the total number of points obtained in each test. The is listed at their just value, by points and hundredths of points.
One can give negative points for performances less than 0, or points higher than 5, whatever the case, by completing in the proper sense the gradation shown in each test.
The number of points is evidently an algebraic sum, since some performances are scored with negative points.
The model of the card-type is shown on page 29.

57. The physical aptitude is called:
1 – Insufficient or null, when the total number of points is less than 0;
2 – Inferior, when the total number of points is at least equal to 0;
3 – Average, when the total number of points is at least equal to 18;
4 – Superior, when the total number of points is at least equal to 36;
5 – Exceptional or athletic aptitude, when the total number of points is at least equal to 60.

58. To characterize the aptitude of the complete and perfect athlete, a high condition is needed.
By definition, a complete and perfect athlete excels in all the exercises; he possesses at least an exceptional aptitude in each of the classic tests of the card-type. By consequence the minimum number of 60 points is not attained by the accomplishment of a couple extraordinary performances which compensate for other very inferior ones.
The minimal performances which must be achieved are:
Standing high jump = 1.15 m
Running high jump = 1.40 m
Standing long jump = 2.50 m
Running long jump = 5.00 m
100 m run = 13 seconds
500 m run = 1:24
1500 m run = 5:05
Rope climb = 10 m
7.25 kg throw = 9 m
Lift 40 kg = 10 times
Swim 100 m = 2 minutes
Swim: dive under water = 60 seconds

59. The results observation procedure which consists of making the successive measures and the regular weigh-ins does not permit notice of the practical results aquired also clearly that the system of the tests indicated very high. The establishment of these physiological cards is to help use a different point of view, because one can know the health state of the subjects.
This question is rather the question of the competence of doctors who, knowing the organic value of the subjects, may prevent certain exercises or regulate the dose by banning or limiting certain performances.
For the normally healthy individual, the psysiological card is not useful. Only the practical observation of the material results is necessary.

Standing high jump | Running high jump | Standing long jump
Running long jump | Run 100 m               | Run 500 m
Run 1500 m            | Rope climb               | Throwing weight 7.25 kg
Lift weight with 2 hands | Swim 100 m     | Swim: Dive under the water
1. Any height is considered as not passed if any part of the body has touched the rope or indicating bar. Starting the standing jump, it is prohibited to move the feet in the way to take a call [roll call?] or the trampling.
2. The distances are measured from the dash line to the heels closest to this line, supposing that the jumper does not fall backwards after the landing.
3. Departure takes place seated on the ground and the climb is done without aid from the legs.
4. The dash is done inside a square 2 meters each side; it is prohibited to exit the square. The throw distance is measured from the line before the square, with the line extended to the center of the print made by the fall of the weight. Take the average of the right and left hand throws.
5. The test occurs for the successive lifts in correct “press”, the legs stiff. Time of rest one second: At the shoulders, the arms tense vertically and the trunk flexes forward (See chapter 6, part 3). The negative scale corresponds to the lift of less than 40 kgs [88 lbs] and is established at the rate of one point per 5 kg difference.
6. The course must be effectively without appreciable current.
7. The body must be entirely immersed. The negative scale is established at one point per each 2 seconds less than 10 seconds.

[Top of each column has name, age and weight of each subject]
[Each row lists the test, performance, and points]
Title: Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
Post by: Gregg HIPK on July 20, 2009, 07:53:51 PM

The strong being – Qualities which characterize the strong being – Conditions to meet to be considered “debroille” (to get by = to pass?) – Things to know; performances to accomplish.

60. The final goal of physical education is summarized: Make strong beings.
The strong being is not a specialist who excels in a single type of exercises or the extraordinary subject who has certain acrobatic prowess; it is the being physically perfectly developed in a complete and useful manner.
61. The value of physical development varies between individuals, it essentially depends on their initial make up.
There is for each a personal coefficient of vitality and a maximum physical power that is impossible to exceed. An easy work for some is a superhuman effort to accomplish for others.
The strong being is he, who by methodical work, has arrived to take his power to a degree near his maximum.
62. A subject gifted by heredity with a vigorous constitution may be relatively weak if, by laziness or for any other cause, the physical power which he possesses has an inferior value to that which his constitution would be able to permit him to attain.
On the other hand, a subject with an average constitution, or even weak, is able to be strong if, by work and perseverance, he can attain the degree of improvement corresponding to his constitution.
63. A subject of average constitution, of small size or low weight, without any special natural aptitude, but who is physically perfect, is practically superior in existence to a much better gifted subject, who possesses a more vigorous constitution, but incapable to use properly his natural force or the waste in pure loss.

64. The physical perfection is not acquired by the methodic physical education. It is always incomplete in one fashion or another.
Certain subjects profit from that which has been passed on hereditarily. Without needing physical education, and with very little work, he arrives to possess an absolute force much superior than the average. But these subjects make up a tiny exception.
Many are content to rest on their natural superiority and do not seek to push forward their improvement.
65. Complete physical improvement, resulting from the methodical physical education, translates finally for the acquisition of a certain number of qualities:
1- The force of resistance or the faculty to do a considerable amount of work without fatigue and wrestle against sickness.
This force, the most important of all to possess, depends entirely on the state of the organs and of the regular accomplishment of their functions;
2 – Muscular strength or the faculty to produce muscular efforts of a certain intensity, but of short duration. It depends directly on the development of the muscles (not of their absolute size) and also of the force of the will;
3 – Skill or the judicious and economic use of strength in all the exercises;
4 – The manly qualities: Will, energy, courage, boldness, coolness, perseverance, tenacity, firmness, etc.
5 – The knowledge and sufficient practice of all the natural and useful exercises;
6 – Complete muscular development, in rapport with the bone structure, with a very apparrent modeling of the muscles.
One may also add to this list:
The resistance to cold and bad weather;
Knowledge of the best ways to care for oneself, feed oneself, etc..
66. When the same subject has all the previous qualities developed to an exceptional degree, he is an athlete.
Unfortunately we can not develop all individuals to the highest degree in order to make them athletes.
Two things are opposed; on the one hand, the initial constitution of many subjects; on the other hand, the demands of today's society, which leaves a very limited time for physical education.

FIG. 3.
The muscle development  (back).
Example of fully developed muscles and having a well designed model.
 (Posed by the author of the book.)
Title: Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
Post by: Gregg HIPK on July 21, 2009, 01:07:29 PM

Minimum number of performances in the tests serving for the measurement of physical fitness.
  For a subject normally made up, at least 18 years old, these performances must not be less than performances corresponding to 0 on the scale of the different tests:

High jump without momentum: 0.8 m
High jump with momentum: 1 meter
Long jump without momentum: 2 meters
Long jump with momentum: 3 meters
Rope climb (without the help of legs): 5 meters
Race 100 meters: 16 seconds
Race 500 meters: 1 min 40 sec
Race 1500 meters: 6 minutes
Lift with two hands a stone or a weight of 40 kgs ( développé [press?] correct): 1 time
Throw a weight of 7.25 kg (average of right and left hand throws): 5 meters
Swim 100 meters: 3 minutes
Swimming: diving under water: 40 seconds.

72. A walking test may be added to the 12 tests for judging the value of the subject's abilities in this kind of natural exercise. But this test is not absolutely necessary. It is evident that a subject who has a sufficient ability in running, jumping and swimming, can be considered as having a sufficient capacity for walking exercise, which is a much less violent than the other three. Walking is not much for such a subject than a question about foot care and choice of suitable footwear *.

* As an indication, the following performances can be regarded as minimal (on flat terrain with no load):
Age 18 20 km in 4 hours
16-18 20 km in 4:30
14-16 20 km in 5 hours
12-14 20 km in 6 hours

On the other hand, any adult of average constitution must average in the same conditions (flat ground with no load) a distance of 50 km in a 12 hour day.

73. For a subject of 16 to 18, normal performance should not be less than the symbol - 1 in each test;
For a subject of 14 to 16, they must not be less than the symbol - 2 in each test;
Finally for a subject of 12 to 14, minimal performance corresponds to the symbol -3 in each test, ie they are:

High jump without momentum. . .0.5 m
High jump with momentum. . . . . .0.7 m
Long jump without momentum . . 1.7 m
Long jump with momentum.  . . . . 2.7 m
Rope climb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  2 m
Run 100 m . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19 seconds
Run 500 m . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1:52
Run 1500 m . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7 minutes
Throw weight of 7.25 kg * . . . 2 m
Lift stone or weight . . . . . . . .  25 kg
Swim 100 m . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3:36
Swim: diving under water . . .  4 sec

* Below 14 years, it is preferable to test using a weight of 4 kg. In this case use the scale of the weight of 7.25 kg to rate the performance of subjects of 12-14 years: Match 5 meters to zero points.

In summary, a subject of 16 to 18 has a sufficient capacity with - 12 points, a subject of 14 to 16 -24 points, and finally a subject of 12 to 14 with -36 points.

(,369,403,619) (,288,397,690) (,290,292,687) (,417,448,553)

74. The essential utility exercises must be executed by all ages, from 10 years at least. The child can do them without encountering more difficulty than adults and are useful to one another to save themselves from danger, defend themselves, to bring help to their comrade, etc. These exercises are:

  1° Recover, ie hanging supported by the hands, without using the legs, cross a bar or crudely shaped traverse.
Weak subjects and children should preferably use the recovery on the forearms, the easiest and most practical.
  2° Traverse standing through a place where vertigo is feared: wall, gate, etc. having a height of at least 4 meters above the ground.
  3° Deep jump of 4 meters in height in an ordinary manner. Weak subjects and children must first hang from the hands, which significantly reduces the height of the drop.
  4° Learn different ways to carry an ill or injured person and carry by yourself a comrade of equal weight to your own.
  5° Throw an object skillfully. Note the skill of the following test:
Hit with each of the arms successively a 1 square meter target at 20 meters distance with an object of a suitable weight, ordinary shape or size: pebble, stone, ball, etc.
  6° Know the most usual strikes of wrestling and boxing and be able to attack.
Be able to control a dangerous individual.

75. The above conditions represent the minimum required to be considered “passed”, giving a quick and easy way to determine the value of an ordinary subject.
  The subject who takes the tests succeeds or fails to execute the indicated performances or it knows or does not know the different ways to climb, swim or defend may be useful at a given moment.
  It is therefore easy, by finding what weak points, to immediately determine the direction to give the education of this subject so that it can achieve the desired level.
  At the age of man any subject who, in the course of a day, is unable to entirely satisfy the conditions that characterize "passed" should be regarded as a physical void.

76. To have a very precise idea of the general physical value of a subject already "passed" or compare it to another subject, proceed as follows:
  1° Note very exactly the performances in the 12 classic tests of the sheet-type. Deduce the value of his physical fitness by using the special scale suitable for the establishment of the sheet-type recording the results;
  2° Note the extent of his knowledge of sports and special abilities by making him do all the more utilitarian exercises, after those identified as essential to be considered "passed", ie :
    a) Handling of weapons: epee, saber, rifle and revolver;
    b) Row and maneuver boats;
    c) Horse riding and handling harnesses;
    d) Driving mechanical transportation: bicycle, automobile, etc.. ; 
    e) Use of the most common tools: hammer, saw, file, ax, shovel, pick, etc.
Title: Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
Post by: Gregg HIPK on July 24, 2009, 03:45:11 PM

[Control?] Hold for the exercises — Basic precautions to avoid the chill. — Training for resistance to cold. — Air baths. — Using water. — Local and general fatigue and breathlessness – General rules to reduce fatigue.

77. The physical exercises must take place in fresh air.
  Working in the open air is the characteristic of any rational method. A complete physical education can not be done in your room or in a closed gym.
  There are circumstances such as: beating rain, snow, impassable terrain, extreme cold, very violent winds, etc., where the exercises are forced inside, but this kind of work must still be regarded as an exception.
  In this case, always be careful to ensure ventilation of the premises as complete as possible, or, preferably working under simple shelters: sheds, covered playgrounds, etc.
78. Physical exercise should not be done immediately after eating.
  In the case of moderate work, an interval of one hour is enough for children, but adults it is beter to wait longer.
  Each time one wants to engage in violent exercise or  produce great efforts, it is preferable to wait until digestion has finished, say 3 or 4 hours. But one must  not do considerably much work in the early morning.

Fig 9.
Group of children from 8 to 11 years going to work clothed in simple boxer shorts.

79. Before work it is essential to remove all unnecessary or cumbersome clothing.
  The air bath (head, torso and legs bare) is a wonderful training in weather resistance along with the best care of the skin.
  The best clothes are: bare torso, simple boxer shorts, short or long canvas pants with an elastic belt if needed, light shoes or simply barefoot.
  Depending on the weather circumstances, the personal aptitude at the moment or the type of exercise to perform, add knitted wool or cotton or a soft shirt.
  Particularly with regard to basic learning exercises, the clothes are not allowed to control the correction of the movements.
  The work performed, bare torso is essential to learn the movement mechanics; it allows to judge the appearance of the body, to see what parts are weak or poorly developed, to find defects or deformities (fig.10).
  In group teaching this kind of work lets the subjects study each other, to see progress in their exterior development and learning on the body itself the play and the role of the different muscles.
  When one only does basic education exercises, there is interest in working in front of a large enough mirror to be able to control oneself.

80. It is very necessary to avoid chilling, after work, that the clothes are never wet with sweat.
  We must remove sufficient clothing or have the effects of special work.
  The more one is dressed, the more easily one sweats. Clothing wet from sweat is not only the leading cause of colds and bronchitis, but they give the body a very unpleasant feeling.
  Anyone who has experienced that feeling naturally searches to avoid its return, if he is too dressed or if he is obliged to be too dressed, by working with less effort.
  Light clothing avoids this inconvenience and also stimulates the body to produce work.

81. Education against cold is made:
1° By air, light and sun baths in in every season, having at least the torso bare;
2° By the great cold baths;
3° By washing of all sorts, local or general, and equally by the following procedure which is very effective: walking barefoot in cold water, dew, humid terrain, etc.
Training for resistance to cold is part of

the physical education as same title as the other gymnastic exercises. It is why the uniform with the bare torso must be the rule all the time when the atmospheric circumstances are not too unfavorable. One obtains in this fashion a very rapid endurance of the skin, and an extraordinary addiction to suffer all the brusque changes of temperature.
  To assure a continual training it is not necessary to keep the torso bare during an entire meeting; during winter air baths of short duration are sufficient.

82. Never stay inactive during sessions where one keeps the torso bare. As long as the organism works, there is no need to fear the same with a harsh temperature.
  Only the chill suffering the body before or after the work presents a danger.
  During the bad season, if the cold is too biting, hold the work sessions by first warming up the body by hopping in place or the runs of short duration.

83. The skin must be maintained in a perfect state of cleanliness by washing, ablutions, dry or humid rubs, great baths, etc.
  It is an essential condition of hygiene.
  The effects of exercise are greatly augmented, from the hygienic point of view, if one finishes each session of work with a shower, ablution, a quick swim, dry rub, humid rub, etc.
  The work done, bare torso and in open air, makes less necessary the treatment of the skin after the exercise, but after a work during which one stays dressed, certainly when one has perspired a lot, a cold ablution is essential.

84. No work can be sustained beyond certain limits. When one feels a certain difficulty to continue a certain work, it is because the body is suffering the attacks of fatigue.
Title: Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
Post by: Gregg HIPK on July 25, 2009, 02:59:21 PM

FIG 10 CONDUCTING A MASS INSTRUCTION - Groups of children of 8 to 11 years starting the session of work with walking exercises with posture-correcting movements

Rest is needed to put the body in a state to start again. Consider: 1° The local fatigue; 2° General fatigue; 3° Breathlessness.

85. The local fatigue comes from exaggerated work of one part of the muscular system. Reaching a certain degree it produces muscle aches characterized by a certain stiffness in the muscles or a vivid pain during contraction.
  Experience shows that simple aches usually disappear in forty-eight hours, if one cares to rest the tired muscles about this long.
  Properly executed massage reduces the duration of the aches.
  The local ache presents no serious problem; It should be considered as an indication to cease work for a time. It always appears after a new exercise which works muscles that have remained inactive for some time.

86. General fatigue is felt throughout the body. It has three main levels: weariness, overwork and forcing.
  Weariness or light fatigue usually disappears after a meal with appetite, a few hours of sleep or the ordinary night rest.
  Sometimes there is a low-grade fever, insomnia or loss of appetite. In this case, an extra rest will return the body to perfect condition.
  Overwork occurs when one starts the same work again, while already weary. The body has not had the time needed to return to a satisfactory state, and repair its parts.
  Troubles a bit more serious than the fatigue can occur, especially if burnout continues for some time.
  The body becomes impoverished day by day and offers less resistance to disease.
  Forcing or the last degree of fatigue is the result of a final effort of will to perform excessive work, while the body is already in a state of burnout. The muscles are stiff and can no longer obey the action of the will. It generally produces fainting and in some cases the consequences can be fatal.

87. Breathlessness is a special disorder of the circulation and respiration produced by the expenditure of excessive work in a very short time. In this state, breathing is constricted, the heart beats very fast; there can even be choking with complete inability to breathe.
  The lungs are saturated with carbonic acid, which they are unable to eliminate. This occurs especially in racing. The runner suffers choking, a beginning of asphyxiation.
  As soon as the first signs of shortness of breath occur, stop work and restore calm by breathing exercises or walking slowly, preferably on the points of the feet.

88. The rules on alternating work and rest concern the whole day and not only the special time devoted to physical exercises.
  The rest periods should be adjusted so that at each return to work all traces of fatigue have disappeared in the body.
  The general signs one recognizes if one has exceeded the limit of forces are:
  Fever, insomnia or restless sleep, irritation, lack of appetite, digestive disorders, fatigue on awakening, pronounced aches, weakness in the legs, etc..
  The particular signs, during the work itself, indicating that it is time to stop are:
  The general stiffness, trembling limbs, pallor of the face or extreme redness, repeated shortness of breath.

89. After a day of busy work one should feel a very light sense of fatigue that should disappear entirely after a regular night’s rest.
  The general signs that indicate the amount of work is
well-regulated are:
  A good appetite, a deep sleep, a feeling of well-being on awakening and no aches.

90. Each subject has a personal coefficient of resistance.
  One must learn to monitor himself, to know his strength so as not to exceed or wasted in vain.
  The limits of fatigue such as breathlessness are significantly pushed back by training, work habits, regularity of breathing movements, well regulated eating, the dose of well-distributed rest, the appropriate pace of execution of work .
  For the same subject, the resistance differs according to the provisions of the moment. Fasting, vigils, temperature, emotions are the main causes that change it in one direction or another.
Title: Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
Post by: Gregg HIPK on July 29, 2009, 04:50:28 PM

Dividing into groups. — Study lessons and real lessons. — General rules about the individual work. — General rules about group or mass work.

91. To educate a large number of subjects at a time, divide them in groups as few as possible (8 to 10 students at most). The students of the same group must be of more or less equal strength.
  Each group is led by an instructor or a sufficiently capable subject.

92. To teach the basic learning exercises, students are placed in each group, beside each other, in one or two rows, at intervals and distances so they can move independently. The layout in staggered rows has the advantage using of less space, and ease to monitor.
  One should often make the students face each other to increase their interest by letting them judge each other.
  For teaching the other exercises, the students are arranged in the most convenient and practical way.

93. In the training practice, one must distinguish:
1- Study or demonstration lessons
2 – Real lessons.
Study lessons are used at the beginning of the instruction and at all times for improvement of the movements. Their goal is that the student understands the mechanism of the movements and is instilled with the correct execution principles.
The master or instructor gives all the needed explanations and makes a practical demonstration of the movements himself or by a well complying student, having a bare torso.
The real lesson supposes the movements are already known, understood, and correctly done. The master’s exclusive role is to conduct the lesson in a way which will really represent sustained and continuous work.
A group of adults do the “press” exercise with iron wenches of 20 to 40 kg.

Title: Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
Post by: Ozzi on July 29, 2009, 05:08:34 PM
You the man!!!
Title: Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
Post by: Gregg HIPK on July 31, 2009, 04:14:59 PM
FIG. 13 - CONDUCTING GROUP INSTRUCTION. - Walking with support of hands as well, walking on all fours.
  This exercise favorably completes the series of support exercises. It is more a utility exercise that lets you move into hiding or to progress more easily on steep slopes and rocks, under undergrowth, etc.

As a result, explanations and comments should be kept to a minimum.
  The general hygienic effect of a lesson is essentially, the care provided in the regulation of the expenditure of work, ie the way it is conducted by the master.
  For example, during a lesson of a total duration of 20 minutes, each student must provide a real work from 20 to 22 minutes.
  Rests should be common, but extremely short (10 to 20 seconds on average).

94. During the study lessons the instruction is largely individual.
  The master successively examines each of the students and corrects their posture in front and especially profile.
  Serious faults are corrected first, then the minor. For example, in the movement: Forward elevation of the leg, the first task of the instructor is take care of body position and not the height at which the leg is elevated.
  The teacher should spend a very short time in each movement, leave to resume again after a few moments, to not tire the attention of his students.
  To assure an active attitude of correction, it is commanded: “Such movement, maintain posture.” Students take the posture and keep it until a new direction of the master.

95. During the real lessons the instruction is collective, made by all the subjects, either in groups, or by bringing together all groups under the command of the master at certain times of the lesson (fig . 9 and 16).
  The group work begins as soon as the movements are executed individually with the highest standards. From this moment it is used almost exclusively. It is up to the individual practice if it is essential to correct the performance of certain movements.
  The group or mass work is useful:
1° To understand at a glance the way movements are understood and done;
2° To give an very precise idea of the speed of travel and obtain a uniform cadence;
3° To stimulate the students and have the least energetic of them make more intense efforts;
4° Finally, to avoid wasting time.

Balance movement of the leg extended forward, done with the hands on the hips.

96. The teacher must ensure that the group work of the basic educational exercises does not degenerate into a simple sketch of the movement commanded. For that he prolongs the rest time by often ordering "Maintain posture" or "Halt" to verify the correction of the active postures.
  During the basic educational movements, students do not count aloud; they make it their full attention to breathe well.
  Only the teacher gives a loud cadence, it rules the duration of rest time and ables the same by a special count.

97. Execution of the movement takes place in two ways:
  1° By command: The teacher states the motion without having to perform it, by commanding: "This movement, at my command." Students go at the rate of the cadence given aloud by the teacher or without cadence to the command of "Go".
  2° By imitation: The teacher states the motion, then he commands: "This movement, follow me." The students fix their eyes on the master and imitate his movements in a precise and accurate fashion.
  This last way is especially used in the beginning; it avoids any loss of time by eliminating many explanations. It is usually used to do the preliminary exercises and breathing exercises.
  Movements stop at the command: "Halt” or “Stop". When the movement to do has a different starting point than upright posture, the position is taken in advance at the direction of the master.
  At the command of “Halt” or “Stop”, the student always returns to the starting position.
FIG 15 – MASS WORK OF UTILITY EXERCISES - Climbing along a wall.

98. All mass education must be based on emulation.
  The master encourages goodwill, make all understand the hygienic and utility importance of the exercises and encourages personal effort as much as possible, especially during the runs and walks (fig 11).
  He occasionally excites pride for the organization by small contests or championships. The classic tests described in Chapter VII can be used for these competitions or the master creates new tests according to the circumstances.

99. In general, the hours reserved for physical exercise are still very limited.
  The great concern of the teacher must be use them well and produce an intense effect. For this goal it must require in a constant fashion:
  1° That the students habitually have a correct attitude [posture?] and a clear appearance (education of the posture).
  2° All the short range movements (100 meters maximum) should be in walking or running fast, without retaining the rank or alignment, so that each student can freely give his own speed (fig. 11 ). This requirement is part of the education of energy; it fights at the oafish fault of speed and makes them lose the slow pace that characterizes them.
  The heaviness of look and movement that comes from that particular state of the nervous system is like sleeping and must wake up, mainly by lively relaxation exercises.
  3° In all important travels (to get to a determined place) do a few minutes of running at a suitable pace which depends on the temperature, loading of the student and clothing that he will wear (education of the strength of resistance by running training).
  4° That the relative requirements for walking and running are strictly observed at all times. (education in how to walk and how to run).
  Movements are generally enough number in the run of a same session or day to not have special sessions for this education.
  5° That the duration of the partial rests between exercises are reduced to an essential minimum;
  6° That during the exercises with equipment, the largest possible number of students exercise at a time. The teacher tells the others, if they are too many, to make a movement without equipment and wait their turn (Fig. 15 and 16).

During work with equipment there is an interest that as many students as possible exercise at a time to avoid wasting time.

100. The teacher must have a register in which he writes down the performances of each student in the 12 tests of the sheet-type to record the results and measure the physical fitness (See Chapter VII).
  The performances are taken as accurately as possible at times determined, approximately once per quarter.
  The register of individual records should also include a table summarizing the general results obtained after each new performance. This table can be established following the model below.

Dates                           * Oct 1    *  Feb 1   * Jun 1   *  Sep 30
Total number of students * 50        * 50        * 50       * 50
Aptitude insufficient        * 28        * 12        * 6         * 1
Aptitude sufficient          * 19        * 28        * 27       * 12
Aptitude average           * 3          * 8          * 12       * 23
Aptitude superior           * 0           * 2         * 4          * 9
Aptitude exceptional       * 0           * 0         * 1          * 5
Total number of points
of all the students         * 130        * 280    * 612       * 775.5
Average number            * +2.6       * +5.6   * +12.24  * +15.5

The calculation of the total number of points is determined by the sum of points for all students without exception.
  The overall average derived from the total number of points gives a sufficiently accurate idea of the general physical value of all the students.
Title: Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
Post by: Gregg HIPK on July 31, 2009, 06:14:24 PM

General layout of a field for physical exercise. — Equipment needed. — Special emplacements —Economic Organization. — Use of any unprepared land.

101. For physical education of a large number of subjects working at the same time, it is absolutely necessary to have available a suitable field, wisely laid-out and organized (Fig. 17, 18 and 19).

102. No specific form of land is particularly recommended. However, if one has the choice, the simplest form, ie the square or rectangle, is the most practical.

103. The best land is that which consists of clay covered with a layer of light sand or fine gravel.
Sand, especially sea sand, provides a very rapid drying of soil after rain.

104. The dimensions to give the land can not be specified; it depends on the number of subjects to exercise at one time.
In general, all the courses of schools (Fig. 20) or barracks, maneuvering fields, some public places are perfectly usable and convertible into physical exercise grounds.

FIG 17 – The very practical way to have 8 groups of subjects to do mass work and under the orders of a single master, the basic learning exercises as modeled in the 4th part.
(Way used in the School of Marine Riflemen in Lorient.)

The figure represents the portion of open space which, in every complete field is reserved for basic learning exercises, for shadow boxing, for small simple games, etc.
  The groups are divided into two columns, one behind the other. In each group, the subjects are about 2m apart and arranged in staggered rows. The group leader stands close to his group, at the place most suitable for monitoring. The master commands from the top of a special platform, to be seen and heard by all.
  For the suspensions and jumps, the different groups go, at the signal from the master, to their respective bars and jumping pits along the path indicated by arrows. They return as a group to the center, at a new signal of the master. Travel preferably by running fast.

105. Typically, a full field, ie a ground arranged in a way that allows the teaching and practice of all exercises, includes:
1° A circular track for the endurance races;
2° A straight track for speed races;
3° Jumping pits in sufficient numbers for the high, long, and deep jumps;
4° A free space for the big games and mass exercises;


FIG 18. Terrain for education of a large number of subjects working at the same time.
  Model permits the exercise at the same time of 200 to 240 subjects divided into 16 groups of 12 to 15 subjects and do all the exercises which make up a complete work session: Basic learning exercises, natural and utility exercises.
  These 16 groups of subjects are divided into 2 groups of 8 each.
  There are 8 sets of equipment and similar emplacements. In each location the provisions are such that there are no inactive subjects in a group, if possible.
  For example, while one division uses free space for the mass work, as well as the race tracks, the other uses the rest of the field, passing successively from one location to another. The timetable of the session is set so that the groups can use all the different kinds of locations.
  The relative layout of the locations or equipment does not matter; it depends entirely on the shape or the size of the land that one has.
  The map at the side can serve as a model to establish the grounds for the less important exercises. For example, by reducing in half the overall dimensions and reducing by 4 the number of locations or devices of every kind one has a suite of grounds to exercise 100 to 120 subjects, etc.

FIG 19 - ANOTHER EXAMPLE OF A COMPLETE GROUND for work at the same time, like the previous example (Fig 18) (The model is the Marine Riflemen of Lorient)
Title: Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
Post by: Gregg HIPK on August 01, 2009, 05:22:46 PM
I stuck in many of the pictures from the book. In the original, they're stuck in between parts of a sentence. Makes for hard reading. I'll try to go through later and fix the pictures of the training grounds - add captions and explanations.

100 m track  for speed races.
FIG 19
…work at the same time as stated in the preceding example (fig. 18).
Marine riflemen of Lorient.)
FIG 20
DIAGRAM of A SMALL AREA of 15m x 20m (a school yard, for example) turned into an exercise field.
The above model easily lets two groups of 10 to 15 subjects or or 20 to 30 subjects work at the same time. While one group is using, for example, the free space in the center or the circular track, the other passes successively to different emplacements.
Where space is limited, use as much as possible the resources present on the ground or the neighboring constructions to install the bars for suspension, the ropes and climbing equipment. It is up to the organizer to use ingenuity installing his field in the most convenient, most economical and most practical way to meet the conditions for a complete work session.
The pool is shown as a guideline. It is exceptional to have within reach such an attractive place to practice swimming.

FIG 21
A SCALING OCTAGON made of superimposed platforms.

  5° suspension and climbing devises, which are, in order of importance: bars of any forms, smooth inclined ropes, scaling platforms (Fig. 21) ladders, walls, etc.;
  6° beams or horizontal bars can be placed at varying heights for balance exercises, jumps with support of hands, some climbing exercises and passages of dangerous places;
  7° A track of jumping obstacles of all kinds (Fig. 22);
  8° Objects such as stones, bars, weights, dumbbells, tested bags, etc. for lifting exercises;
  9° A special emplacement and weights of 4 to 20 kg, such as stones, weights, balls, etc. for throwing exercises;
  10° target and lighter items, such as stones, balls, etc. for the exercises of throwing at a determined goal;
  11° Wrestling arenas;
  12° A high place to combat vertigo.

106. The preceding organization is relatively easy to install and does not cost too much. Thus:
  1°and 2° The race tracks require a simple trail, marked as required by pickets.
  3° A jumping pit for the high jump consists of two pickets graduated in centimeter and a rope to indicate the height (Fig. 23).
  A jumping pit for long jump consists of a bed of sand about 6 meters long, 2 meters wide and 20 centimeters thick. The distances are marked on a horizontal traverse placed on one edge of the jumping pit (Fig. 23).
  For deep jumps one uses stepladders, ladders, walls, embankments, etc..
  4° Free space for games and exercises which don’t demand a track.
  5° The suspension apparatus: bars, ropes, etc.. install economically using fixed attachment points such as trees, walls, uprights of all kinds, etc ...
  On the other hand, the attachment points that we have cited can be use for climbing apparatus (fig. 15 and 16).
  6* The beams or horizontal bars which are composed of wooden planks of any shape, preferably round, placed on stands or two earthen berms to 1 meter at least above ground.

FIG 23. MODEL OF A GRADUATED JUMPING PIT for study jumps of height and length.
  7° The jumping track includes ditches, wood barriers or gorse bushes and embankments of earth or stone. It is mainly a question of earthworks.
  8° For the lifting exercises one can use all sorts of heavy objects, such as large stones, iron or cast iron masses, bars, bags filled with sawdust or sand, etc. If one does not want to make the expenditure of barbells, use cast iron wenches [ingots?] or dumbbells.
  9° For throwing weights get stones of all shapes and sizes (weighing from 4 to 20 kg) and have some balls calibrated at 7.25 kg.
  10° For throwing projectiles at a determined goal, make a wood target 1 meter each side or draw a goal on a wall for example.
The soil is covered with a thick bed of tan or sawdust, the edges are formed by pieces of turf.

  11° The wrestling arena is made by spreading a layer of sawdust or tan on the ground (fig. 24).
  12° To combat vertigo, all kinds of buildings, equipment, trees, etc. can be used (Fig. 21, 25 and 26).

107. The amount of emplacements or devices of the same kind to be established on the ground depends on the resources one has, as well as the number of subjects to exercise at the same time.
  In general, in a perfectly organized terrain the  layouts are such that each group of performers has their own complete gym.
  Such an organization allows different groups, under the orders of the same instructor, not only to exercise themselves all at once, but at the same time perform the same exercises, which greatly facilitates the supervision and conduct of work.
  Assuming a total of 50 performers, for example, divided into 5 groups of  10, each group having:
  A jumping pit;
  One or more devices to climb;
  A horizontal beam;
  Weights, bars or stones for lifting;
  A special emplacement for throwing with weights, stones, etc.;
  An arena for wrestling.
  Tracks for racing and jumping obstacles can serve all the groups at the same time.

108. When the dimensions of land we have or the resources available are not sufficient, the installations to make first and which are primary are in the following order of importance:
  1° Jumping pits;
  2° A track for the races;
  3° Apparatus for hanging or climbing.
  All this so you can at least run, jump and climb for a session. Then, objects for lifting and throwing, the arena for wrestling, and so on.

109. A teacher must know to pull part from the first ground come and never be embarrassed to exercise his students.
  With a little ingenuity, any unprepared land, especially: school yard, place, field, prairie, etc. can be immediately transformed into a ground for physical exercise. To this end:
  1* Use discovered spaces for basic learning exercises, boxing, wrestling, the study jumps, the speed and endurance races, the games;
  2* Use trees, walls, columns, traverses, ladders, for the climbing and scaling exercises.
  3* Choose heavy rocks and suitable weights for the lifting and throwing exercises.
  4* Use the ditches and embankments to make the jumps of real obstacles.

110. Finally, on an absolutely bare terrain, it is always possible to do at least the following exercises:
  1* The basic learning exercises (except the suspensions)
  2* The study high and jumps
  3* The speed and endurance races.
  4* Shadow boxing, working in pairs and the assault
  5* The study of the wrestling strikes, or the assault if there is sand or grass
  6* Transport of the injured
  7* Lifting and throwing, for one can always easily find stones for one or the other of these exercises;
  8* The games.

This is the end of the "Study" section. I will update the rest as I soon as I get it...
Title: Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
Post by: Gregg HIPK on August 25, 2009, 03:43:41 PM
Pilou has finished translations of the throwing and lifting sections. While I'm impatiently waiting for missing pages from Harvard Library, I thought I'd start to slog through the DEFENSE chapters. I think that instead of breaking down all the strikes in mind-numbing detail, I'll only interpret the photo captions?


General considerations — Main effects on the body. —Utility of the defense exercises by natural means. —Boxing. — Wrestling — Defense against a dangerous individual.


553. The art of self defense includes all processes to dispose of or gain control of an adversary, either by natural means, or with instruments or weapons.
  Defense by natural means is the first to know and practice, both because of its usefulness and the excellence and the multiplicity of its effects on the body.
  All the other ways of defense with instruments or weapons such as baton, cane, epee, saber, guns, etc. should be classified as sports.

554. Defense exercises by the natural methods are useful when one is unarmed:
1° To resist an attack;
2° To control a dangerous individual or get rid of him;
3° To come to the aid of someone or protect;
4° To gain respect, etc.

555. The main effects of defense exercises are:
1° They develop the entire muscular system;
2° They increase the strength of resistance;
3° They develop the manly qualities: boldness, courage, coolness, energy;
4° They give assurance and self-confidence;
5° They require calculating, thinking to strike blows with the greatest possible impact;
6° They make one clever and flexible;
7° Lastly they give resistance to blows and pain.

556. The natural defense exercises include:
1° The strikes with fists, feet;
2° Limb or body holds to throw the opponent to the ground;
3° The 'keys' or special holds to immobilize the opponent standing or on the ground.
  Practically, the natural defense exercises can be reduced to boxing and wrestling.

Usefulness and principle effects of the boxing exercises — Guard position — Direct punches —Punches to the side — Kicking. —Work on mannequin, bag, etc. — Work in pairs. — Assault and combat.

I. — General considerations.
557. Boxing is the art of defending yourself against an opponent or to defeat him, by striking with fists or feet.
This kind of exercise is particularly useful:
1° To keep an individual at a distance;
2° To get rid of an opponent who has seized you;
3° To fight several opponents at once, etc.

558. Boxing exercises are done several ways:
1° Alone by striking nothing;
2° Alone by striking dummies, bags, etc.
3° By working in pairs;
4° In simple assault, without attempting to decide the strongest;
5° In combat to decide the strongest.

559. From the simple educational point of view, boxing is an exercise of the first order.
The different strikes of boxing with fists and kicks, done correctly in the air with full range of motion, produce nearly the same effect as the basic educational movements and have almost all their qualities.
They recall, however, by the outward form they reveal, some educational movements, particularly lunges and balances.

560. The full effects of boxing are:
1° It develops a large part of the muscular system. The kicks in particular have a very intense action on the abdomen muscles.
2° It greatly develops the dexterity, the flexibility, the glance.
3° The work of legs as well as the movements and little jumps that accompany execution of the different strikes, activate breathing and circulation.
4° The different kicks develop a sense of balance.
5° The exercises performed by striking dummies, bags, etc and assaults and fights let one gain speed in the relaxation of the members, quality which can not given enough by striking nothing.
  In effect, in an empty bowl, one must necessarily slow the rate at the end of movement and contract antagonistic muscles to avoid a painful and sometimes even dangerous shock in the joints.
6° Finally, assaults and fights increase the strength of resistance, develop manly qualities and endurance to beatings and pain.

Title: Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
Post by: Gregg HIPK on August 26, 2009, 04:01:21 PM
Fig 291. Right guard position (left foot and fist forward).

FIG 292. Direct punch with the rear arm - 1. Preparation. — 2. Release of the body.

Fig. 293 – Direct punch with the front arm – 1. Preparation. – 2. Release

FlG. 294. Hook punch of front arm to the right corner of the jaw. - Preparation (left group) and execution of the punch (right group).

FIG. 295. HOOK PUNCH OF THE REAR ARM to the side of the jaw (left group) and the lower ribs (right group).
The hook punches are delivered, like the direct hits, with the knuckle bones at the base of the fingers. The more one closes near, the more one must use at the same time the total mass of the body by a violent twisting of the trunk, augmenting if needed with a lateral lunge or a burst.

Fig. 296. LOW KICK. – From right guard with the right leg; from left guard with the left leg.

FIG. 297. KICK FROM POINT [OF FOOT] TO FACE HEIGHT. - 1. Preparation 2. Release of the leg.

FIG. 298. FLANK KICK TO FACE HEIGHT. — 1. Preparation. – 2. Raising the thigh. The thigh is placed in the direction of the opponent, the toes extended. — 3. Releasing the leg.

1. Preparation. —  2. Flexing the leg. The thigh is brought as close as possible to the abdomen; the point of the foot contracted — 3. Releasing the leg.

1. Preparation. - 2. Flexing the leg, the thigh as close as possible to the abdomen. — 3. Release of the leg.

1. Preparation. Bring the thigh as close as possible to the abdomen, and at the same time, change the guard of the arms. – 2. Release the leg.

For punches: canvas bag filled with sawdust.
For kicks: logs hanging at different heights
Title: Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
Post by: Ozzi on August 26, 2009, 08:15:42 PM
So is that how you look when you spar G? }:D
Title: Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
Post by: Gregg HIPK on August 27, 2009, 12:13:27 AM
No. That's how I used to look. Now I'm not as flexible. ;D
I never took boxing. Being able to kick is an added bonus.
[Old style, or is it just a French thing? I spent 5 sec to find out, but didn't.]

Tomorrow is wrestling, I guess. I NEVER looked like those pictures.
I wrestled at 98 & 103#. Heavyweight, yeah? ;D
Title: Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
Post by: Ozzi on August 27, 2009, 02:57:00 PM
Title: Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
Post by: Gregg HIPK on August 27, 2009, 03:52:47 PM
Sorry - wrestling will be tomorrow. I forgot about the parries and ripostes.

Practical way to strike at full strength, without inconvenience to the recipient.

The left subject parries by an opposition of the left arm and retreating back at the same time.

The low kick is given with the sole of the foot or the inner edge of the boot on the tibia.

The point kick is given with the point or sole of the foot, in the upper legs, lower abdomen, chest or face.
The left subject parries by retreating the body back and pushing the leg of the enemy down with his arms.

The flank kick is given with the point of the foot to the side, low ribs, chest or face.

FIG 308. PARRYING THE SHOOTING KICK OF THE REAR OR FRONT LEG at flank or face height. The shooting kick is given with the sole of the foot or the heel to the shin, upper legs, chest or face.

  Left group: Against an attack of the rear arm of his opponent, the subject on the right dodges to the left. From this position, he can easily riposte to the head or chest of his opponent with his right fist, or the lower ribs with his left fist.
  Right group: Against an attack of the front arm of his opponent, the subject on the left dodges to the right. From this position he can easily riposte to the lower ribs of his opponent with his right fist, or to the head or chest with his left fist.

For an attack of any kind, lean back or jump back quickly to avoid the blow.

On an attack with the rear arm by the left subject, shoot kick from the rear leg to the chest by the right subject.

Left group: On an attack of the front fist to the head by the right boxer, the left boxer dodges to the right and ripostes by a direct punch of the right fist to the lower ribs.
Right group: On an attack of the rear fist to the head by the boxer on the right, the boxer on the left dodges left and ripostes with a right hook to the side of the jaw.

Each of the opponents modify the regular classic guard following his temperament and his abilities.
Title: Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
Post by: Gregg HIPK on August 27, 2009, 05:32:19 PM

594. Assaults and combats occur in two ways:
1 - Complete boxing: kicks and punches
2 - Punches only. This way is preferred over the first, mainly in combat.

595. In an ordinary assault, the opponents attack and strike, not to decide the strongest, but only with the goal to learn to strike correctly, to parry and riposte appropriately. They make these preliminary agreements before attacking.
  In general, the stronger of the two opponents helps the weaker by giving advice during the work.

596. In combat however, adversaries seek to assert their skills and prove their superiority. Various precautions are taken to avoid accidents during the combats:
1 - The adversaries are chosen of roughly equal weight.
2 - They are given special padded gloves and light shoes.
3 - The location of the combat is very clear and limited by ropes if needed. It contains no object that may present danger in case of a fall.
4 - The combat takes place in rounds of 1 to 2 minutes, with a rest of at least 1 minute between each round.
5 - A teacher or instructor leads the combat and announces the winner. He stands near the fighters and watches them closely.
6 - It is forbidden for fighters to:
- Kick during a fistfight.
- Use a fast point kick in complete boxing
- Hit below the belt in a fistfight.
- Hit with an open glove, palm of the hand, wrist or forearm
- Hit with elbow, head, or shoulder
- Hit an opponent on the ground
- Hold the opponent
- Continue to hit when body to body
- Fall without a blow
- Fight in a brutal manner or any other incorrect manner

7 - When a competitor is on the ground, he may rest standing away at a distance. He may not begin fighting until the director's order, when his opponent has left the ground with both hands and has faced him anew.
8 - The director of combat separates the fighters in case of body to body. He stops the meeting as he sees fit, either to avoid an accident, or to reprimand or eliminate a competitor who is boxing unfairly by not observing the requirements above.
9 - Each fighter is always assisted by a comrade who rubs, refreshes and cares for him during the interval times.

597. These are declared defeated in combat:
1 - The competitor who removes himself
2 - The competitor unable to continue fighting after a rest between two rounds
3 - The competitor who fell to the ground and did not get up after a certain number of seconds [decided in advance]
4 - The competitor who constantly remained on the defensive
5 - The competitor who has been constantly dominated by his opponent, either by the repetition of his attacks or the precision of the blows he has struck.
Title: Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
Post by: Gregg HIPK on August 28, 2009, 04:29:09 PM
General considerations. — Classic flat hand wrestling holds. — Braids of the leg or foot, hooks and holds of the legs in ordinary free wrestling.

I. - General considerations.

598. Wrestling is the art of skillfully using some holds of the limbs or body to unbalance an opponent, overthrow, throw or control.
This kind of exercise is particularly useful:
To get rid of an opponent after one has been seized by him;
To handle a dangerous individual, etc.

599. The main effects of wrestling exercises are:
They develop both muscular strength and power of resistance;
They make one clever and flexible;
They learn to fall down without hurting themselves;
They give courage, boldness, coolness and toughness developed in attack as in defense.

600. Wrestling exercises are done three different ways:
1° In regular work in pairs: study and proper execution of various strikes and their parries;
2° In simple assault, without attempting to decide the strongest;
3 ° In combat, to decide the strongest.

601. The regular study work includes proper execution of the various blows and their parries between opponents alternately filling the role of attacker and attacked.
For this work, opponents decide by mutual agreement the blow they will perform. They only make the necessary effort, either to execute the agreed strike, or to resist by parrying.
When many subjects maneuver under the command of one master or instructor, they are placed in two rows facing each other. The instructor then commands: "This move: 1st row, attack! 2nd row, this parry!” Or “No parry!” Then he repeats the same strike, alternating the rows.

602. In the ordinary assault, opponents wrestle simply with the goal to study the different holds or parries; if needed they make preliminary agreements.

603. In combat, they seek instead to assert their skills and prove their superiority.
  As in boxing, various precautions are taken to avoid accidents during the wrestling combat.
  A teacher or instructor is still leading the meeting which takes place in rounds with a certain number of minutes;
  Opponents are chosen with weight about equal
  The location of the combat is clear, and contains no object that may pose danger in case of fall. Plus it is covered with sawdust, tan, etc. or a carpet or a special mattress.

604. The regular work in pairs and courteous assaults where one takes every precaution possible and where one does not seek to decide the strongest are exercises requiring only moderate exertions. They must be regularly employed.
  Wrestling combat to decide the strongest is an extremely violent exercise.
  Carried to excess, it has all the drawbacks of strength training and can produce the following accidents: overwork of the heart, hernia, muscle tears, etc..
  Furthermore, if self-esteem and desire to win are involved in a reckless manner, some courteous conventions, such as that of accompanying the opponent to the ground, for example, are no longer respected. It is then necessary to fear injury: fractures, bruises, dislocations, etc. as a result of falling over one shoulder, an arm held wrong, etc.
  Children and underdeveloped young people should never engage in combat, but only courteous assault.

605. We must distinguish several kinds of wrestling:
1° Wrestling with the open hand, the most conventional of all, having only simple holds above the waist;
2° Ordinary free wrestling which includes the same plus varieties, but which, while less conventional than flat hand wrestling, ignores the most dangerous or painful strikes;
3° Free wrestling with the minimum possible agreements.

606. Wrestling with the flat hand is generally done with a bare torso. The holds are made from head to waist. The fingers of the hands are held together. Using the legs, either to unbalance the opponent, or to ensure a fall, is not allowed.
  All the dangerous or painful strikes are prohibited and in particular:
  Chokes, the maintained and forced tightening of the neck;
  Reversals and twists of the arms and hands;
  Twisting of the neck;
  The crushing of the cervical vertebrae or forcing the head to the chest.

607. Different varieties of free wrestling are done all clothed or with special very resistant clothing: jacket or shirt of heavy canvas.
  It is permitted to seize, depending on the mode of wrestling, all or part of clothing.
  The use of the legs is permitted, either to unbalance the opponent, or to guard against a fall.
  To avoid accidents it is essential that the opponents agree in advance the conventions to be respected during the course of the assault or combat.

608. In the flat hand wrestling or ordinary free wrestling, the opponent is considered "fallen",  defeated, when both shoulders simultaneously touch the ground. The opponent must be escorted to the ground and not thrown or plated brutally, and that in order to avoid a dangerous fall.
  In free wrestling with the minimum possible conventions, the opponent admits his defeat either by sign, or voice when he can no longer resist or when it is caught in a "key".

609. The flat hand wrestling and ordinary free wrestling, either simply with leg loops, or with loops and leg holds at the same time, are the two modes of wrestling to be used in preference.
  Free wrestling with the minimum possible agreements should only be performed in regular study work or simple assaults, opponents taking the utmost precautions to always avoid an accident to be feared with the dangerous holds.
  This last kind of wrestling is the image of real combat, either to defend one’s life or to control a dangerous individual.

610. The methodical training with wrestling exercises is:
1° Start by learning the regular work of blows and parries of the flat hand wrestling;
2° Then make a flat hand wrestling assault;
3° When one has enough first kind of wrestling, learn the blows and parries of ordinary free wrestling
4° Make assault in ordinary free wrestling, first by simply adding the leg passes, then the leg holds to the strikes of ordinary flat hand wrestling;
5° Finally, learn the dangerous blows and their parries, but not to assault and using these last blows between experienced adversaries.

II. – Classic holds of flat hand wrestling.

611. All the holds following are described simply for the side of the body where, usually, they are done the most commonly.
In regular study work, they should be done symmetrically on both sides of the body.


FIG. 315 - FRONT WAIST HOLD -1. Encircle the opponent at the waist with one’s arms. – 2. Lift from the ground and swing to move his upper body to the left.

FIG 316 FRONT WAIST HOLD (continued) – 1. Place the left knee on the ground and rest the back of the opponent on the right thigh. — 2. Free the right leg and let the opponent drop on both shoulders without releasing the hold.

FIG 317. – PARRY OF THE FRONT WAIST HOLD - Push the opponent by placing the forearm on his throat and seizing ones wrist with the free hand.

FIG 318 – SIDE WAIST HOLD – 1 Stand on the right side of the opponent, encircling the waist. — 2. Lift him, swinging him to meet the ground as in the earlier front waist hold.

FIG 319. CROSSED SIDE WAIST HOLD — 1. Encircle the opponent on the right side, by passing the left arm in front of his body and right arm at the rear. — 2. Lift and bring him to the ground like for the front waist hold.

FIG 320 REAR WAIST HOLD - 1. Encircle the opponent’s waist from behind with the arms. – 2. Lift from the ground, engage the right arm under his right armpit and put the right hand over the neck.

FIG 321. REAR WAIST HOLD (continued). — 1. Fall on the left knee and lay the opponent back on the right thigh. — 2. Drop him on the shoulders by freeing the right leg.
Title: Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
Post by: Gregg HIPK on August 29, 2009, 03:13:24 PM
FIG 322. TWO WAYS TO PARRY A REAR WAIST HOLD. – 1. Lunge deeply forward and push the opponent by seizing the arms above the elbows. – 2. Arching the lower back, extend the trunk and head back and surround the opponent's arms.

FIG 323. BACKWARDS WAIST HOLD. - Seize the opponent and load him on the right shoulder.

FIG 324. BACKWARDS WAIST HOLD (continued). — The opponent being raised above the ground, drop abruptly forward by putting the knees on the ground.

FIG 325 PARRY OF THE BACKWARDS WAIST HOLD. -  Drop back to fall flat on the back, causing the opponent to make a complete somersault.

FIG 326. HIP TURN WITH HEAD – 1. Circle the neck of the opponent with the right arm and at the same time seize his right arm above the elbow with the left hand. — 2. Kneel suddenly to carry along the opponent.

FIG 327 – HIP TURN WITH WAIST. – 1. Seize the opponent at the waist by surrounding it with the right arm and at the same time seize his right arm above the elbow with the left hand. — 2. Kneel suddenly to carry along the opponent.

FIG 328. PARRY OF THE HIP TURN WITH HEAD OR WAIST. -  Lunge forward, pushing the opponent with the free arm and resist the forward carry by pulling back strongly.

FIG 329 ARM TURN. – 1. Seize the opponent’s left arm with the right hand and the left hand above the elbow, and engage him over the left shoulder. – 2. Kneel suddenly to carry along the opponent. 

FIG 330. ARM ROLL ON TOP – 1.  Seize the left arm of the opponent with both hands above the elbow and engage him with the left armpit. 2. Kneel suddenly to carry along the opponent.

FIG 331 – PARRY OF THE ARM TURN AND ROLL – Lunge forward, pushing the opponent with the free arm, and resist the forward carry by pulling back strongly.

FIG 332. – ARM ROLL UNDERNEATH. - 1. Pass the head and the left arm under the opponent’s right armpit. With the left arm strongly hug his right arm under the left armpit. — 2. Strongly encircle the opponent’s right arm under the left armpit (Waist hold parry in reverse).

FIG 333. HEAD TURN — 1. Seize the opponent's neck from below with the right arm and put the left hand on the nape of the neck. — 2. Kneel suddenly to throw the opponent forward.

FIG 334 – PARRY OF THE HEAD TURN – 1 Make a “bridge”, strongly arch the lower back while somersaulting to keep the shoulders from touching ground. – 2. Lunge forward as much as possible bringing one knee to the ground, and push the opponent with one of the free hands.

FIG 335. – BRIDGE OR DOUBLE BRIDGE  (another parry of the head turn). —  Make a “bridge”, strongly arch the lower back while somersaulting to keep the shoulders from touching ground.
The wrestler who does the head turn can try to topple his opponent by himself making the bridge. The wrestlers are then in a "double bridge". One of the wrestlers who made the bridge to parry a head turn, his opponent may try to overturn it by a bridge over him.

FIG 336. – SHOULDER TURN - 1. Seize the left arm of the opponent with the right hand above the elbow, and engage the left arm under the right armpit. – 2. Force the opponent to his knees and turn him over towards the right.

Left group: The kneeling subject tries to take his opponent in a rear waist hold. The latter parries by completing a flat stomach.
Right group: The subject in back passes his right arm under the right arm of his opponent and puts his right hand on the nape of the neck.
With the left hand he seizes the oponent’s left arm. By pulling the left arm towards him, and lifting with the right arm, he tries to turn his opponent onto both his shoulders.

Title: Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
Post by: Gregg HIPK on August 31, 2009, 12:17:11 PM
III. — Locks of the leg or foot, hooks and holds of the legs in ordinary free wrestling.

638. Ordinary free wrestling usually consists of the strikes of the flat hand wrestling, to which are combined or added all positions and holds possible with the legs.
  In the free wrestling the leg work is primarily intended to throw the opponent to the ground in a single blow or using the mass of one’s body to unbalance him to overturn him more easily.

639. To unbalance an opponent or throw him to the ground in a single blow, either by a lock of leg or foot, or by a leg hold, it is essential that all the body weight of the opponent rests on the leg we want to move or seize.
  If this condition is not met, lifting or moving the leg doesn’t produce any real loss of balance.
  To parry the locks and leg holds, quickly move the body weight from one leg to another.

640. Locks of the leg or foot from the outside are the most effective strikes.
  Holding the legs with the hands are in general impractical, especially in front, as they call too easily for a reposte by the opponent of a reverse waist hold.
  (') Breton wrestling, highly honored in the Bretagne countryside, is a kind of free wrestling where the leg hooks called “jambettes” play a very large role. Leg holds with the hands are never used, and are even prohibited in competitions. The adversaries hook the clothing from head to belt, including the belt.

641. With an opponent who wears clothes, the best hand holds are: One hand on each shoulder (Fig. 338); both hands at the same shoulder; a hand to the elbow and the other at the shoulder (Fig. 343); a hand to the neck or collar, the other at the elbow.

FIG 338. - PRACTICAL COSTUME FOR WORK IN FREE WRESTLING: Pants and jacket of heavy canvas.
  Example of a hand hold on the clothing, at the shoulder (Breton wrestling).
  Higher holds are the best to unbalance the opponent.

  Left group: The subject on the the right, having seized his opponent with a turn of hip and head tries to throw him by passing the right leg from outside.
  Right group: The left subject, having secured a hold on his opponent’s clothing, tries to knock him off balance over the left leg passed outside.

  Left group: the left subject, having seized his opponent’s clothes, abruptly sweeps the opponent’s left foot from outside to inside with the inner part of his right foot.
  Right group: the left subject puts his heel behind and against the left heel of his opponent and suddenly pushes back with a single arm.

  Left group: the left subject, having seized his opponent by a front waist hold, tries to knock him down by passing the right leg inside.
  Right group: the left subject, having secured a hold on his opponent’s clothes, seeks to knock him down by passing the right foot on the inside.

  Left group: the subject on the right, having seized his opponent with a hip and head turn, seeks to knock him down by making an outside hook with the right leg.
  Right group: the left subject, having secured a hold on his opponent’s clothes, tries to knock him down backwards by making an inside hook with the right leg.



  Left group: The left subject, having been seized by a hip and head turn, ripostes with a one hand leg hold.
  Right group: The left subject, having been seized by a reverse waist hold, ripostes with a two hand leg hold.

  Left group: the left subject seizes the two legs of his opponent below the knees by crouching down as much as possible and resting his head outside the legs.
  Right group: the left subject also captures the two legs of his opponent, but as he did not crouch, his opponent riposted immediately with a reverse waist hold.

Title: Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
Post by: Gregg HIPK on August 31, 2009, 02:09:59 PM

647. There are two cases to consider depending on the matter:
1° Getting rid of an individual when one was seized by him
2° Master an individual to prevent harm, drive back, stop or expel him.

648. In the first case, break his hold by:
Boxing punches or kicks;
Wrestling strikes or parries.

649. In the second case, as a general rule, avoid approaching the individual head on. Approach from the side or preferably from behind. Seize him immediately, either with a wrestling hold already described, or one of ways indicated below.
  Act with the highest possible speed and seek to make a "key", to hold the individual, so that any attempt at resistance on his part is impossible.

650. Regarding the kind of hold to make, everything depends on circumstances. The hold that is good on a weak subject will be completely ineffective if applied to a strong individual or one who knows self defense.
  All the "keys" can be done in any position: standing, kneeling, squatting or on the ground. Certain “keys” are dangerous, proceed with caution when doing them.

FIG 347. – DEFENSE AGAINST A DANGEROUS INDIVIDUAL. – Encircle the individual from front or back by wrapping him with both arms at the same time.

FIG 348. REDUCE A DANGEROUS INDIVIDUAL TO POWERLESSNESS: How to make a “choke”. – Circle the neck of the individual with the right arm to master him from in front, the side, or preferably in back. Seize your own right wrist with your left hand and squeeze strongly.

FIG 349. – REDUCE A DANGEROUS INDIVIDUAL TO POWERLESSNESS – Seize the arms of the individual to master from behind and keep the elbows as close as possible to each other, encircling them with the arms if needed.

Left group: Inside arm twist. — Right group: Twist and reversal of an arm behind the back and bringing the wrist as high as possible.

FIG 351 – HOW TO REDUCE A DANGEROUS INDIVIDUAL TO POWERLESSNESS:  Conducted by two – Seize the wrist and elbow of the individual to master and turn the arms outside or inside. Maintain distance by being careful to always stay to the side, facing the same direction as him.

  Left group: The left subject turned over to the outside the right arm of his opponent and forces the articulation of the elbow using his own left arm as the fulcrum.
  Right group: The kneeling subject turned over and outside the right arm of his opponent and forces the articulation of the elbow using his own right knee as the fulcrum.

  Left group: forcing the elbow joint. — Right group: forcing the ankle joint.
  For all the forcings, the way to imprison the joint is always the same.

Note: The two preceding "keys" [arm lever and forcing a joint], especially the latter, are the most effective of all. When the hold is well assured, the individual is reduced to complete powerlessness, and is incapable to make any movement.
  In the case of legitimate defense or the capture of a dangerous individual endowed with exceptional strength, do not hesitate to use all the dangerous blows banned in courteous wrestling, but part of the art of self defense:
  Kicks and punches, elbows, knees, hitting with the edge of the open hand, in the most sensitive parts of the body: temples, nose, eyes, chin, Adam's apple, neck, stomach, lower abdomen, knee cap, shin, etc;
  Head butts to the face, chest and abdomen;
  Twists and turns of members, twisting fingers, twisting the head, lengthening of the cervical vertebrae, twisting ears and nose;
  Ties, chokes, throat holds, etc.
Title: Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
Post by: Gregg HIPK on August 31, 2009, 02:43:18 PM
Elijah/ Bionicgrape sent me the pages that were messed up/ missing from the Google scan. To make it easier reading, I will insert the new information where it belongs in the book, and make a note here so you all know what's been added.

[pages 10 and 11 of the foreword are now done, so the foreword is now complete, in all its awkward glory. :P ]
Title: Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
Post by: Gregg HIPK on September 01, 2009, 02:45:28 PM
Just did pages 23-29, which has the short form of the test chart, and a sample of a 4 person "fiche-type"
My big apologies = we had the test chart over at HIpk in April 2009. When I copied the thread over, I missed copying the chart.

The test chart HERE ( is the complete one, from -5 to +15. It's the one I use.
Title: Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
Post by: Gregg HIPK on September 02, 2009, 01:18:28 PM
Finished the Expose... there are still a couple missing pages, and a couple photos I didn't copy. I apologize for the rough translation work. When I started, I translated as fast as I could to get the info out for Ozzi, Shiloh and the other guys at HIpk.

Now that I go back over those early chapters, I cringe at some of my work. Oh well...

Time to check in with Pilou... I may try to do the captions for the "Games, Sports, Manual Labor" or "Swimming" chapters. "Swimming" is really large - tons of photos. Urg.
Title: Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
Post by: Gregg HIPK on September 04, 2009, 12:33:46 PM
Sometimes a man's gotta do what a man's gotta do... ;p  There are a couple terms which are different than English. I'll go through and fix them as I get a better understanding of the chapter. For the strokes, I'm going to only put in the photos and photo captions, not the pages and pages of detail.   ;D


General considerations – Principle effects on the body – The lesson or complete swimming session - Breaststroke on the stomach - Breaststroke on the back – Standing swimming - Floating – Diverse strokes of endurance and speed - Diving under water and swimming between two waters. - Diving headfirst and feet-first – Rescue exercises – Accidental submersion - Requirements and precautions & group training of swimming exercises.


306. Swimming is the most comprehensive of all the exercises.
  A complete exercise must be both hygienic, aesthetic and utilitarian; it must develop the proper muscle strength as well as the force of resistance and to acquire skill and moral energy.   Swimming meets all these requirements:
  1° The hygienic effect is intense: it activates all major body functions, especially respiration; it cleans the skin and hardens it to cold; finally it is done outdoors.
  2° Its action is very effective for the “ampliation” of the chest and building respiratory capacity. Indeed, in all the ways of swimming, the arms are constantly brought back beyond the head in the trunk extension, which produces the elevation of the ribs, through the expansion of the rib cage. Moreover, the discomfort produced by the liquid mass and the violence of the muscular work forces long and deep breathing.
  3° It also has a very intense action on the development of the whole musculature, because it requires various muscular contractions of the arms, legs, trunk and head.
  In general, all these contractions, being very extensive, are wonderful exercises for loosening the joints and members; they have a very excellent effect on the recovery of the spine.
  4° To go further and faster requires perfect coordination of movements and an appropriate rhythm.
  5° The difficult exercises of diving and lifesaving develop skill, composure, courage and self-confidence.
  6° Finally, all the swimming exercises are indisputably useful.

307. For a swim be useful and beneficial, it is necessary to take it in a certain fashion.
  One must enter the water knowing what he is going to do, otherwise we risk wasting time and no progress is possible.
  To learn something or just to improve, we must work methodically, have a goal and draw a program.
  Swimming should be a real lesson.

308. The session or lesson of swimming, like the gymnastic session or lesson, should consist of a number of different exercises, performed in a logical order, and be fully regulated as to expenditure of work.

309. A complete session or lesson of swimming should include:
  1° One or more brutal immersions (of any height) either head or feet-first, returning immediately to the surface;
  2° A course on the stomach of ordinary breaststroke, with a very slow pace to start.
  This way of swimming is the best to remedy curvatures of the spine and to acquire or maintain correct posture.
  3° A course on the back.
  The backstroke is a rest after a course of some length on the belly; this swim is the most essential to know for rescue.
  4° A dive under water, starting either from a height, or from the surface of the water. This exercise is to stay as long as possible under water, the body completely submerged.
  5° A motionless position or complete rest, "float."
No movement of arms or legs should be make during this exercise.
  6° One or more "packages" using the fastest swimming methods, the "cut", marinara, etc..
  7° Lastly, complete the lesson with a few slow front or back breaststrokes, enough to restore calm to the respiration and circulation before the release of water.
  This is the program for a complete hygienic and utilitarian swim.

310. Propulsion in water is the result of a series of efforts of impulses produced by a proper motion of the upper and lower members.
  It is noteworthy that all the ways to progress in water are based on the same principle. The impulse effort is obtained: first, by the sudden meeting of the legs and, secondly, by arms acting like an oar or paddle.
  The sudden meeting of the legs, which produces most of the impulse effort is perfectly comparable to the closure of two branches of a pair of scissors. It can be done in two ways: first legs spread apart, either laterally (regular breaststroke, etc..) or, in front and in back of the body (Indian breaststroke, etc.. ).
  The arm movement will also occur in two ways: in a horizontal plane (regular breaststroke, etc..) or otherwise, in a vertical plane (sidestroke, etc..).
  Finally, the movement of the legs with the arms can be either simultaneous or alternated.

311. Swimming may be broken up into four main phases:
  1° Starting position or preparation of the members to produce their effort;
  2° Impulse effort;
  3° Time of rest, the members extended, to let the body glide and profit from the impulse;
  4° Return of the members to the starting position.
  The work performed by members of two consecutive returns to the starting position is what is called a complete stroke or full motion.
  The cadence of swimming is the number of strokes or complete movements executed in a minute.

312. Consider:
  The endurance or resistance swims permit the effect of a long run with the minimum fatigue;
  The speed swims where one seeks the greatest speeds possible over short distances.

313. How to breathe has capital importance in all the swimming.
  The inhalation is done at the end of the rest time, at the beginning of the return of the members to the initial position, then that the body is raised lighter. It is very fast and is usually done with an open mouth.
  The exhalation is done with a firm mouth; it is very slow and lasts all the rest of the time not used for inhalation.
  The respiration is regulated on the cadence of the stroke.
  With the endurance or resistance swims, where the cadence is relatively slow, make an inhalation at each complete stroke.
  With the speed swims, where the cadence is very fast, make a single inhalation after two, three, or four complete strokes.
  The advantageous or economic cadence of the endurance swims is evident that corresponds to the cadence of normal breathing, 15 to 20 complete strokes per minute, on average.

314. The swimming exercises have a double goal:
  Exercises swimming must have a double goal: teach people to get through crises in all circumstances and to be useful to others by knowing rescue. They include three major categories:
  1° The different ways to progress and to hold yourself at the surface of the water;
  2° The "work" on the water and under water;
  3° Rescue exercises.
Title: Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
Post by: Gregg HIPK on September 11, 2009, 04:38:52 PM
Here are most of the captions, and some further explanation. I'm on a different computer - I'll have to add the photos later. Maybe Monday?

Breaststroke – Backstroke – Treading water – Floating

FIG 151 – BREASTSTROKE – Beginning or preparation position

FIG 152 - 1st part of the impulse effort
Release the lower members, the feet always flexed; and extend the arms in front of the head.

FIG 153 – End of the impulse effort, after the scissor kick, or closing of the legs, the feet extended; and position of the body during the entire rest time.

FIG 154 – Horizontal and lateral arm movement, the palms of the hands facing outwards.
Make a deep breath during this movement.

FIG 155 – Foot flexed, foot extended
  Figure designed to show the two principle movements of the feet: the flexion and the extension, which have a great importance in the different ways to swim.


FIG 156 BACKSTROKE – Initial or preparation phase.
  Flex the lower members in the same way as the breaststroke, the knees spread as much as possible and the feet well flexed and turned outwards. At the same time, flex the forearms, elbows and body, the palms of the hands flat over the middle of the chest, fingertips meeting.

FIG 157 – Impulse effort
  Make extension of the legs by prolonging the thighs and pushing the water with the soles of the feet

FIG 158 – End of the impulse effort after the scissors kick or the brusque closing of the legs and the arrival of the arms along the body. The body keeps this position during the entire rest time.

FIG 159 – End of the impulse effort: the head and upper body emerge. Take advantage of this instant to make a rapid and deep inhalation.

III. — Treading water.
333. Treading water consists of keeping yourself perpendicular to the surface of the water. From this position one may stay in place, advance, retreat, move laterally, or turn oneself completely.
  This way to swim is very useful if one wants:
Observe what is happening around oneself;
Let oneself drift with the current;
Attend to a rescue;
To keep something rather light above the water;
To maintain oneself in rough water;
To undress oneself in the water;
Keep up a very heavy object or transport an object without getting it wet;
Keep up a tired person, etc.

334. Treading water is made of four principal phases, like the breaststroke and backstroke previously described.
  The lower members do the ordinary movements of the breaststroke or backstroke. As for the movements of the upper members, they are different, depending if one wants to stay in place, advance, or retreat.

To stay in place in a vertical position, the movements are as follows:
1st PHASE. — Initial or preparation position.
  Flex the arms, the elbows to the body, the hands flat at about chest height, palms of the hands facing down and horizontal, the fingertips joined together.
  Flex the lower members, knees spread laterally, feet flexed and turned outward.
2nd PHASE. — Impulse Effort.
  Extend the arms horizontally and lower them extended toward the thighs, palms of the hands always facing down, and horizontal.
  Extend the legs laterally, the feet flexed, Étendre les jambes latéralement, les pieds en flexion, then reunite them by extending the feet.
3rd PHASE. — Rest time.
  Keep the arms long and extended, the palms of the hands facing down and horizontal.
  Keep the lower members united and extended.
4th PHASE. — Deep breath and return of the members to the initial position.
  At the end of the impulse, the body is lifted vertically, make at that moment a deep inhale.
  Lift the arms in front of the body and turn the palms of the hands vertically, then return to the initial position by returning the palms to a horizontal position. Flex the lower members and also return them to the initial position.

335. After this if one wants to see, if one wants to stay in place in the treading water, the movement of the arms, instead of moving horizontally like the breaststroke, is done vertically.
The impulse effort of the upper and lower members is done simultaneously as in the backstroke.

336. To move forward, backward or sideways in the vertical position, the movement of the lower members does not change, depending on the movement to make, one uses the arms in a different way.
  To advance, the movement of the upper members is as follows:
1st PHASE. — Initial or preparation phase.
  No changes.
2nd PHASE. — Impulse effort.
  Extend the arms in front of the body, the palms of the hands horizontal. Turn the palms vertically to face the body, and flex the wrists, the fingertips are joined.
  Then bring back the hands to touch the chest, the palms always vertical.
3rd PHASE. — Rest time.
  Keep the hands flat over the chest.
4th PHASE. — Return to initial position.
  Simply place the palms horizontal.

337. To retreat:
1st PHASE. — Initial or preparation phase.
  No change.
2nd PHASE. — Impulse effort.
  Extend the arms in front of the body, turning the palms out as much as possible, thumb toward the bottom, fingertips together.
3rd PHASE. — Rest time.
  Keep the arms elongated, palms out.
4th PHASE. — Return to the initial position.
  Place the palms horizontal and return them to the chest.

338. To move laterally (to the right for example):
1st PHASE. — Initial position.
  Right arm is extended laterally, palm of the hand is flat. Left arm is in the normal position.
2nd PHASE. — Impulse effort.
  Movement of the right arm: Turn the palm vertically and bring the hand back flat to the chest . Movement of the left arm: Extend the left arm to the left, palm turned out as much as possible, thumb underneath.
3rd PHASE – Rest time.
  Right hand is flat on the chest. Left arm is extended, palm down.
4th PHASE – Return to initial position.
  Place the right hand flat and extend the right arm laterally. Turn the left hand flat and return it to the chest.

339. To make the movement forward, backward or sideways easier, it is necessary to lightly lean the upper body to the side one wants to move.
  To move sideways, one of the two arms may be used, the other staying constantly in initial position, palm flat.

340. The movement of the body results uniquely from the action of the hands which, taking support over the liquid mass, pulls the body to them in forward movement, pushes to move back, or pulls with one hand and pushes with the other for lateral movement.
  The position of the hands has a very large importance.
  For all the preparation movements or the return to initial position, the hands, not having at that moment an active role to fill, have to put up the least resistance possible. The opposite is true during the impulse effort.
  For example, to stay in place in a vertical position, the return to initial position is made with the hands vertical. The hands turn horizontally to push the body.
  Moving forward, the hands are carried horizontally to the front; The palms turn vertically to pull back the body.

341. To turn completely in place, to the right, start by carrying the head to the right and by advancing the left shoulder and hip. Then make the arm movement as in the lateral progression, by carrying the right arm to the rear of the shoulder line as much as possible and the left a bit in front of the body.
  Make these movements in the opposite direction to turn left.

342. Learning to tread water is simple and easy.
  It is enough, being in breaststroke, to little by little reduce the angle of the body until it reaches a vertical position.
  The head is kept upright or slightly leaned to the back.
  Breathing is very easy, the impulse effort of the lower members is enough to raise the body.

FIG 160 POSITION TO GIVE THE BODY FOR FLOATING. The palms of the hands are horizontal, parallel to the surface of the water, the soles of the feet also. The head is thrown back to make the nose and mouth emerge.

FIG 161 BALANCE POSITION OF THE BODY IN FLOATING TRAINING. The body swings vertically. The flotation line is here above the axis of the ears. The following figure represents the same subject training the float, it is below.

FIG 162 The position of equilibrium has its place under an inclination which depends on the buoyancy of the subject.

I – Resistance or endurance strokes

Sidestroke – Ordinary Indian stroke – Continuous Indian stroke

  Starting position for the impulse effort: 1 – To the left with the superior arm under the water; 2 – To the right, with the superior arm above the water.

  1 – At left; first part of the impulse effort: release laterally the legs before their reunion at the line of the body; lengthen in front the right arm; draw the left arm to the back. - 2 – At right: End of the impulse effort and position of the body during the entire rest time.

FIG 165 – SIDESTROKE – Detail of the movement of the arms, the body being on the right side, and the superior arm works above the surface of the water. During the return movement of the superior arm to attack position beyond the head, watch well to always project the shoulder forward as much as possible, at the same time as the arm.

FIG 166 – THE INDIAN STROKE – Starting position for the impulse effort: the left subject with the superior arm under the water; the right subject with the superior arm out of the water

FIG 167 – THE INDIAN STROKE – 1 – At left: end of the impulse effort and position of the body during the entire rest time. The closing movement or scissor kick of the legs in the sense of in front and behind the body is finished; the right arm is lengthened in front, palm of the hand is under, the left arm is drawn back and touches the left thigh. - 2 – At right: work of the right arm or inferior and at same time return the members to starting position.

FIG 168 – THE INDIAN STROKE – Detail of the leg movement, the body assumed to be lying on the right side.
  The distance of the the legs is produced to the front and back way and not in the lateral way. The thighs stay in contact. The foot of the superior leg is flexed, and that of the inferior leg is extended at the beginning of the scissor kick. The effort of the superior leg is made with the back of that leg, and that of the inferior leg with the front.

FIG 169 – THE CONTINUOUS INDIAN STROKE – 1 – At left: First impulse effort: drawing the left arm back, lengthening the right arm in front, distance of the legs. - 2 – At right: Second impulse effort: closing the legs, return of the left arm in front, descent of the right arm and return to the starting position.

FIG 170 – CROSSING OF THE FEET IN THE INDIAN STROKE – Position of the legs and the feet at the end of the impulse effort and during the entire rest time.
The body is supposed to be seen in front view, lying on the right side. The left foot is in this case under the sole of the right foot.

FIG 171 – THE DOUBLE SCISSORS KICK – 1 – At left: Starting position of the legs for the double scissors kick, the body supposed to be lying on the right side. – 2 – At right: Starting position of the legs at the end of the impulse effort and during the rest time. The legs are open; the upper leg is behind the lower leg.

Title: Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
Post by: Gregg HIPK on September 11, 2009, 11:00:29 PM
II. Speed strokes.

Marinara. — The regular cut. — The Indian cut. — The dog stroke or ordinary alternative cut. —  The crawl stroke or the Indian alternative cut.

FIG 172 – MARINARA – 1 – Left: starting position for the impulse effort. — 2 - Right: end of the impulse effort. The movement of the lateral release and the closing of the legs is finished; the left arm continues its horizontal circular movement, the palm of the hand outside.

FIG 173 – THE ORDINARY CUT — 1 – Left: Starting position for the impulse effort. – 2 – Right: 2nd part of the impulse effort.
  In the 2nd part of the effort, the movement of lateral release and closing the legs is finished; The left arm comes to make a sculling motion from left to right and left hand is found at the height of the right nipple. During the 2nd part of the impulse effort, the left hand continues its effort over the water and comes to touch the left thigh; at the same time, the right arm goes out of the water and places itself beyond of the head in the starting position.

FIG 174 THE INDIAN CUT – 1 – Left: Starting position for the first impulse effort. — 2 – Right: First impulse effort. The movement of closing or the scissor kick of the legs is achieved; the left arm finishes  its effort and the right arm comes to place beyond the head in position to start the 2nd impulse effort.
  In this stroke there is not a leg movement legs for two arm movements. During the return movement of the arms to starting position, watch well to always project the shoulder forward as much as possible, at the same time as the arms.

FIG 175 – THE DOG STROKE OR ORDINARY CUT WITH ALTERNATIVE LEG MOVEMENT – 1 – Left: Starting position for the first impulse effort. – 2 – Right: End of the first impulse effort (left arm stuck to the body, left leg extended laterally, then returned to the line of the body) and starting position for the second impulse effort.
  This stroke is also done by working together the opposite members, that is to say, left arm with right leg and right arm with left leg. This way is easier because it is more natural.

FIG 176. – CRAWL STROKE OR INDIAN CUT WITH ALTERNATING MOVEMENT OF THE LEGS – 1 – Left: Starting position of the first impulse effort. – 2 – Right: End of the first impulse effort and starting position of the second effort.
  During the 1st effort the hand has been returned directly as far as to touch the left thigh; the left leg is come to the line of the body. The closing movement of the left leg is done by first bringing the left thigh back, the left knee lightly behind the right knee, secondly by brusquely extending the left leg by making a strong forward kick. It is not necessary to flex the leg as far as shown in the figure.
  This stroke is also done by working opposing members: left arm with right leg and right arm with left leg.


369. Diving involves immersing the body including the head, below the water surface.
The swim between two waters is being submerged, to travel a certain distance or reach a certain depth.
  In this particular situation of the body being plunged, it is obviously impossible to take in any air.
The duration of immersion is consequently very limited and its value depends more or less on the tolerance of the respiratory and circulatory functions.

370. Diving is an exercise of paramount importance. It is particularly useful when it comes to:
  Getting out in case of accidental drowning;
  Maintaining oneself in rough water;
  Rescue a drowning person or one suspended in midwater;
  Search for a person fallen in the water;
  Pick up an object at the bottom of the water, etc..

381. The diving exercises are always a danger.
  Follow an extremely mild progression for the duration of stay under water or on the depth reached *. Once one feels the slightest discomfort or dizziness, ascend to the surface as quickly as possible and leave the water immediately.

* The performance scale for diving duration already indicated in Part 1, Chapter IX, in the table of observing test results is the following:
10 seconds = 0 point
20             = 1
30             = 2
40             = 3 (superior ability)
50             = 4
60             = 5 (exceptional ability)

By adopting the same gradation process and the same notation as all the tests of results observation, a scale of depth diving performance is as follows:
3 meters = 0 point
4           = 1
5           = 2
6           = 3 (superior ability)
7           = 4
8           = 5 (exceptional ability)

When one dives for a significant time, it is prudent not to exceed a depth of 3 to 4 meters.


FIG 177

… rather large depth, order someone to look after themselves, or better, to be attached by a strap fitted with a rope of sufficient length and whose end is held in the hand by one person remained on the shore (Fig. 177).
  Do not assume that because one could make a dive so many seconds a given day, we can safely start the next day or after that.  Everything depends on the particular conditions under which one is located. The body’s tolerance is highly variable and the slightest cause may influence it: digestion, nutrition, sleep, temperature, atmospheric conditions, etc..

FIG 178. DIVING FEET FIRST - Jump in water like a long deep jump. Or good: 1° Jump in a crouched position, the trunk nearly vertical, like the subject who is more on the right, and hold the front of the legs with the hands and take care to lower the points of the feet before reaching the surface of the water. — 2° Jump in vertical position, the body completely elongated, like the left subject; the arms along the body or spread laterally or vertically.

FIG 179 – HEADFIRST DIVE (Detail of the first phase).
1. Inhale long and deep by raising the arms (left subject) — 2. Drop the arms and carry them back by flexing the lower members at the same time, the upper body leaning forward (middle subject) – 3. Vigorously extend the lower members by quickly bringing the arms beyond the head (right subject).

FIG 180 – DIVING HEADFIRST (Detail of the later phase)
l. The left subject has arrived at the precise moment where he has toppled forward, has to at that instant vigorously extend the lower members and quickly carry the arms beyond the head. — 2. The right subject has left the ground: the lower members are completely elongated, and the arms are extended beyond the head. The body will enter the water at an angle of about 45°. The chin stays on the chest shortly before arriving at the water’s surface.


A correct dive produces little splashing of water, and the body penetrates the water like an arrow. To do this the direction of the velocity which the body is animated at the moment of entry into the liquid mass is, at this precise moment, conformed with the line formed by the body itself.

The greater the height, the less the impulse given by the legs need to be strong. To not enter the water too vertically and, consequently, to avoid diving too deep, "glide" as long as possible by keeping the head higher than feet. Don’t let the upper body be more than 1 or 2 meters below the surface of the water.

Model of a ladder with a mobile platform for conducting dives at different heights.


Swim with the arms or legs only. — Diving in every way possible. —  Transporting objects. —Collecting objects. — Rescue carry. — Defense of a caught rescuer. - Rescue of a sunk and capsized boat — Crossing running water and establishing a “back-and-forth”. — Swimming clothed.

389. From a utilitarian point of view, swimming exercises should have as their essential goal the work on water and under water, which is not possible without any rescue practice.
  The following exercises are chosen and classified so they can gradually prepare the swimmer to get by and also to assist a person in danger of drowning.
  They should be done first in swimwear before we can think of doing them fully clothed.

I. — Swim with the arms or legs only.

390. 1° Swimming on the belly, back, standing and side, with legs and one arm.
Immobilize the other arm by placing the hand on the hip, neck, on top of the head, etc..

2 - Swimming on the belly, back, feet and side, with legs only. Immobilize the arms by placing hands on hips, neck, on top of the head, etc..

3° Swimming on the belly, back, feet and side, with arms only. Keep legs together and extended in the line of the body.

Hold the hand above the water, the arm flexed.

4 - Moving forward with one arm only, the other members held motionless in any position.

5° Moving forward with one leg, the other members being held motionless in any position.

II. - Diving in every way possible.

391. 1° Diving feet first and come to the surface as quickly as possible facing the direction of departure.

2° Dive and return immediately to the surface in the direction of departure and taking as little water as possible.

3° Dive in all the possible inclinations.

4° Diving, feet first, and as fast as possible face the point of departure. To do this turn around in the water before reappearing at the surface.

5° Dive and turn as soon as possible to face the starting point. To do this turn around in the water before reappearing at the surface.

FIG 184 - DRESSED SWIMMERS TRANSPORTING A RIFLE by keeping it in place at the shoulder with one hand.

6° Dive with momentum, feet first. Make a run beforehand and try to jump with momentum as long deep and far as possible.

7° Dive with a running start. Make a run and dive head first as far as possible.
Perform the same exercise without use of both feet.

8° Dive without momentum and with momentum facing the direction of departure after a full somersault in water.

9° Fall over backwards in any way, turning in the water facing forward on the belly, or to the back  on the back.
  Never stretch the body completely when falling; instead, flex the trunk as much as possible on the legs once in the air and strongly tuck the head to the chest to avoid a painful flat-back landing.

FIG 185. – TRANSPORT OF OBJECTS HEAVIER THAN WATER - Swimming across a river with rifles.

10° Fall into the water by surprise by being given a push.

III.  — Transporting objects lighter and heavier than water.


IV. —Pick up objects by diving.


V. - Rescue carry

  The person to be helped places a hand or two hands on the shoulders of the rescuer and is towed behind or to the side.

  The person needing help (left foreground) puts his hands on his rescuer’s shoulders. The rescuer stays like this or tows in front of him swimming on the belly or, preferably, on the back.

  Seize the person to be rescued from behind with both hands, either by arms above the elbow or under the armpits. Tow the person by swimming with the legs only, preferably on the back.

  The way which consists of seizing the person to be rescued from behind, by the arm or under the armpit, is the safest and most practical of all. It prevents the rescuer from being caught.

  Seize the person to be rescued (left subject) from in front with both hands, either at the arms, above the elbows or under the armpits. Tow the person by swimming with only the legs, preferably on the back, like the subject on the right.

  Another example of a rescue from in front. This way is not as good as rescuing from behind, because the rescuer is in danger of being caught.

  Seize the person to be rescued (left subject) from behind with both hands and grab the clothes on each side of the neck or high on the chest.
  Tow the person by swimming on the back with only the legs.
  The rescuer must sacrifice the proper breathing to constantly keep the head of the person he is rescuing above water.

  Seize the person to be rescued (right subject) from behind and encircle his neck with the left arm and grab his clothes with the left hand. Swim on the back or side with both legs and one arm.

  Rescue from behind by seizing with a single arm. This way to rescue is very easy and permits easy and rapid swimming, either on the back or side, with both legs and one arm.

  Another view of a rescue from behind with one arm. This way permits very easy keeping the head of the rescued person above the water.

FIG 194 - RESCUE CARRY – Supporting a person in danger with two rescuers at the same time. The rescuers place themselves one in front, one behind, and seize the person in danger by the arms or under the armpits. They keep his head above water by swimming upright with only the legs.

FIG 195 – RESCUE CARRY – Transporting a person in danger with two rescuers at  the same time.
The rescuers place themselves one in front, one behind, and seize the person in danger by the arms or under the armpits. One swims on his back, the other on his belly, in order to keep the person in danger on his back during the towing.
  In this fashion, the head of the person emerges very easily. 

FIG 196 – RESCUE CARRY – Transporting a person in danger by two rescuers at the same time.
The two rescuers place themselves on each side of the person in danger, and seize him by an arm or grasp his clothing with a single arm. The rescuers swim on the stomach and keep the person being towed on his back.

VI. —Defense of a caught rescuer.

  Left group: The rescuer (left) being seized by the wrists, returns his wrists inwards and extends his arms laterally.
  Right group: The rescuer (right), being seized by the waist and an arm, frees himself by using the wrestling parry against the front waist hold.

  Left group: The rescuer (left) being seized by the neck, places his left hand behind the back of the person needing rescue, and with the right hand, vigorously pushes the head of the person backward.
  Right group: The rescuer (right) being seized with arms around the body, frees himself by pushing the person’s head backward and applying a knee to the person’s abdomen.

  The rescuer places one hand under the chin of the person who comes to seize him and pushes his head vigorously back to break his grip.

VII. - Rescue a capsized or sinking boat.

  At the moment the boat capsizes, the boaters escape and  move apart as fast as possible, so that they do not stay entangled under it when it overturns.

  At the moment the boat capsizes, watch well to clear yourself as fast as possible of objects which may hinder the limbs, primarily the legs.

  Once the boat capsizes, the boaters, after they scatter, regroup themselves at the front and rear and try with all their effort to upright it.

  The boat which has sunk and capsized is kept upright by the boaters who distributed themselves equally on both sides. In this situation they wait for rescue or swim to tow.

VIII. - Crossing running water and establishing a back-and-forth.

  A simple makeshift raft is the best way and the most practical to effect a course or crossing a river with persons of few exercises or those who don’t all know how to swim. In the latter case, the persons should attach themselves solidly to the raft.

412. When the number of people is too great for them to find a place around or on the raft, it is necessary to make several trips and the best swimmers tow the raft back to its starting point.
  If one has a long enough rope, one establishes a “back and forth” between the two sides.
When the raft makes its first voyage, it takes one end of the “back and forth”, the other end being held by the people remaining on the shore. The ends of the “back and forth” are then securely fastened on each shore and the tight rope serves as a means of hauling swimmers who bring the raft.
  Instead of fixing the two ends of the “back and forth” on the banks, you can attach one end to the raft.
  Persons who have not yet crossed can easily return the raft back to themselves after the first have landed. If one has two strings of sufficient length, one may establish a “there and back” on each side of the banks.
  The raft then performs its passage in both directions, without the swimmers having to tow it. When crossing a river, never try to defeat the current; always land at a point downstream from the point of departure.

IX. — Swimming clothed.
413. Start by simply putting on shorts and shoes. Gradually increase bit by bit the number of clothes until entirely dressed in street clothes.
  Repeat the previous exercises, in particular the work on the water and under water, being fully dressed.

414. Swimming, fully clothed, is extremely tiring and at the same time very slow.
  Firstly buoyancy is less than swimming in bathing suits, except for a very short period immediately after immersion, when the water has not fully penetrated the clothing. This reduced buoyancy often makes it impossible to float without movement.
  Also the limb movements cannot have all the desired motion, because of the discomfort caused by clothing.
  Finally pockets of water formed by the clothes provide a significant obstacle to propulsion.
  Generally, the pace of the movements of swimming fully clothed must be much slower than swimming in a bathing suit if one does not want to unnecessarily tire oneself.

415. Being in the water fully clothed, it is possible to undress completely. This exercise is both an application of treading water, floating, diving and swimming with the legs or arms only.
  The removal of coat and waistcoat is the only relatively easy part of the exercise. It is enough to stay in the vertical position while treading water with the legs only.
  To remove the shoes, trousers and shorts, it is necessary to crouch and remain submerged long enough to cast off each of these garments.
  To remove the shirt or sweater, tread water and dive if necessary to pass these clothes more easily over the head.

416. Apart from the coat and waistcoat, the removal of additional clothing, pants, shorts, shoes and shirt is extremely painful and tiring, sometimes exhausting.
  Moreover, pants and shorts can stay engaged in the legs and thereby limit the use of lower limbs.
  The shirt and the sweater can remain engaged on the head and cause drowning.
  In summary, while it is useful to remove some effects, it may be dangerous to undress completely in case of accidental drowning.


Getting oneself out of danger in case of accidental submersion – Rescuing a person in danger – Caring for drowned people.

I. —Getting oneself out of danger in case of accidental submersion.
417. After an accidental fall, ascend to the surface as quickly as possible and breath.
Keep all ones composure to judge the situation, thinking to save strength and above all not to make unnecessary movements. If a good place for rescue is near, win it as soon as possible while dressed. If it is moving away, swim with the greatest care possible and well regulate the pace to avoid being overcome by fatigue.
  Get rid of the clothes easier to remove, as the coat and waistcoat.
  Sometimes there will be interest in keeping the vest to prevent the shirt from forming pockets of water.
  In all cases, unless you are exceptionally strong, never try to undress completely.
  It is even better to keep all ones clothes than to expose oneself to fatigue or completely exhaust oneself by wanting to quit.

418. When the current is too strong, do not use ones strength to want to beat it, try to land downstream from the point where one is, or wait for help.
  To free oneself from a vortex or the embrace of aquatic plants, do not try to resist, but remain motionless and passive by floating for a sufficient time.

II. - Rescuing a person in danger.
419. The first duty of a rescuer is to act with extreme rapidity, for any loss of time can be fatal.
The rescue is relatively easy if the person needing help is still [a water flower :D ] floating.
Just approach and seize the person using one of the methods listed earlier, then wait for help or swim to a favorable place.

420. In all circumstances the most practical and safest way is to approach from behind and seize the person by the arm or under the armpit without him noticing. In this way, the rescuer avoids being caught.
  In the case where the person to be helped turns around and tries to seize the rescuer, he immediately escapes and returns once again from behind a few instants later.
  If the rescuer has been seized, he frees himself one of the ways indicated earlier under the title "Defense of the caught rescuer”. As a last resort, if he believes the situation too dangerous for himself, he does not hesitate to choke the person or make him lose consciousness.

421. The rescue becomes more difficult when the person has gone under, without reappearing at the surface.
  If he has disappeared from the rescuer’s view, the rescuer must be guided to do his search by the air bubbles that indicate the exact location of the submersion. He dives below or above the bubbles along the direction of the current. If there is no clear indication on the location of the disappearance, he explores the depths by performing repetitive dives.

422. The rescuer has no fear of being seized by a completely submerged person.
  The moment he does not reappear, he has completely lost consciousness or is at least suffocated because he no longer has any force.

423. When one is surprised fully dressed when rescue is needed, do not lose valuable time to undress completely, especially if the course is to make is small.
  Get rid of just the most annoying things: shoes and overcoat.
  Adjust the trousers well at the belt, so as not to risk having your legs immobilized.


424. When the drowned person is removed from the water run in order, the following maneuvers:
  1° Lay the drowned on the back or slightly to the side, horizontally or head slightly higher than the feet;
  2° Loosen clothing promptly at the waist and chest;
  3° Clear the mouth and nose of mucus that may be present. Keep the mouth open, by putting an object such as knife handle, a piece of wood, cork, etc. between the teeth if needed
  4° Kneel behind the head of the drowned, grab his wrists and make him perform artificial respirations. For this, strongly press the wrists over the lower ribs, then pull them beyond the head in order to send arms outstretched in the extension of the trunk, either directly or laterally (Fig. 204).
  Perform artificial respiratory movements at the normal  rate of regular respiratory movements, 15 to 20 per minute, which corresponds on average to 2 seconds for elevation and 2 seconds for lowering.
  The most practical way to observe this cadence is to regulate it by yourself, coinciding the elevation and lowering movements with your inhalations and exhalations.

Using artificial respiratory movements.
  Strongly press the wrists of the drowned on his lower ribs and then bring up the extended arms beyond the head along the trunk extension.

  5° If after 4 to 5 minutes breathing is not restored, stop the movement of raising and lowering the arms and replace it with the traction of the tongue.
  To do this, seize the tongue of the drowned with a handkerchief, a towel, a piece of cloth, etc. and pull it quite energetically, then let it back naturally (Fig. 205).
  The traction must be performed, like the arm movements, at the regular rhythm of breathing, 15 to 20 times per minute.
  6° Once breathing is restored, undress the drowned completely, massage or rub with cloths, blankets or just dry clothes to revive him.
  Then, wrap or dress or with dry effects and transport if necessary. 
  The first rescuer performs the artificial respiratory movements with the arms; the second executes rhythmic traction of the tongue, the third rubs the drowned with dry clothing. Movement of arm elevation must exactly coincide with the outward pulling of the tongue.

7° Do not stop too early or despair by giving aid to the drowned. Prolong artificial respiration and tongue pulls as long as possible, even for several hours in some cases.

425. What has been said relates to the case of a single person in the presence of a drowning.
If several people are gathered, the most experienced of them must take the lead to do the maneuvers.
  Four more people are the most needed for urgent care and a greater number would interfere with each other.
  The first person involved stripping the drowned;
  A second performs artificial respiratory movements with the arms;
  A third does rhythmic pulls of the tongue;
  Finally, a fourth may help first to undress and massage the drowned.
  The second and third persons must coordinate their movements in terms of rhythm and take care to ensure that movements of elevation of the arms exactly coincide with the outward tongue pull (Fig. 205).
  Treatments that have been shown for drownings also apply to the asphyxiated.


426. Swimming should be a regular exercise, subject to the same rules as other gymnastic exercises, and not free swimming.

427. For a group teaching to proceed, it is necessary that the students who do not know how to swim are able to tread water as soon as possible.
  Begin by demonstrating, then making them properly do on dry land, movements of the regular breaststroke and backstroke to all students who can not swim.
  When these movements are well understood and done, 3 or 4 sessions at most, with a capable teacher or instructor, it is enough for the students to tread water.
  Students who know how to swim very well assist the masters for the first instruction of incapable students.
Title: Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
Post by: Gregg HIPK on September 13, 2009, 03:44:25 PM
Added the info on treading water :D

Now it's time to go out and play!
Title: Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
Post by: turtlekarma on September 13, 2009, 03:57:55 PM
Gregg, what is all this stuff?  is this the kind of exercises you do?
Title: Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
Post by: Gregg HIPK on September 14, 2009, 12:34:43 PM
This is the 100 year old training manual for "Methode Naturelle". MN was one of the influences on parkour. This edition of MN had 8 "essential utility exercises": walking, running, jumping, climbing, lifting, throwing, defense, and swimming. Later versions added quadrupedal movement [QM] and balance. Erwan LeCorre updated MN, modified it, and added carrying and catching, to make MovNattm.

I do MN inspired workouts, and have been taking the MN tests every month, just for "fun".  ;D

I had translated the Foreword, Jumping and Climbing and a different Hebert book on MN over at HIpk. Pilou from DC came out with a .pdf that was much better translated. That's why I don't have J&C chapters here any more.

Pilou added Lifting and Throwing. I'm doing the Expose [theory], part of Defense, part of Swimming. I hope to finish this week.
Title: Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
Post by: Gregg HIPK on September 14, 2009, 03:33:07 PM
End of CHAPTER IV, SWIMMING.  ;D Just a few hundred loose ends to tie up and we'll be DONE!

  This instruction is done, either along a dock, taking the student by a strap fitted with a rope, or simply taking the student's hand when the water is shallow enough to stand in.

FIG 206. GROUP TRAINING OF SWIMMING EXERCISES – The start of a complete session: Sudden immersion by the head or feet.

428. The program of daily work depends on both atmospheric conditions and students’ diverse skills.
  Typically, a session of collective work always includes the sequential performance of the following exercises:
  1°. A dive by the head or feet (Fig. 206);
  2° A dive under water;
  3° Group exercises together with progressive courses in which one uses the diverse ways to swim, float, etc (fig. 207 and 208)
 4° One or more other special exercises under the guidance of the master;
  5° A final speed race (fig. 211).

FIG 207 – MASS SWIMMING EXERCISES – Mass exercises by separate groups. During the work in the water, the swimmers are always “buddied up” in pairs, a strong swimmer with a weak one.

429. The group exercises are all very attractive and, moreover, very useful for developing assurance and ability of the swimmers.
  For their performance the teachers make them take regular formations, the main ones:
  Single file line;
  Front line;
  Swimming in circles.
  They move from one formation to another, doing a half-turn, facing right, left, either swimming breaststroke, or backstroke, or treading water.

430. In order to get the students used to swimming with only their legs to help them, have them do many:
  1°. Single file lines on the belly (Fig. 209), and the back (Fig. 210) (each student placing his hands on the hips, shoulders or under the armpits of the one in front of him);
  2° Front courses on the front and back, each student placing a hand on the shoulder of his neighbor.
431. While working in the water, students should always be "buddied-up" two by two, a strong swimmer with a weaker (Fig. 207). Whatever kind of exercise, these two students are always next to each other, the safeguards and security are enhanced.
FIG 208 – MASS TRAINING OF SWIMMING EXERCISES – Parade of an entire company of Marines in instruction groups.
The Marines are completely dressed and the two first groups also have rifles and bandoliers. On the dock, the swim masters are always ready to rescue.
  Some of the strongest swimmers are swimming clothed and secured by a strap whose end is always held by another swimmer or firmly fixed.

Fig. 209. – GROUP TRAINING OF SWIMMING EXERCISES -  A  single line in swimming on the stomach.
  Each swimmer puts his hands on the shoulders of the one preceding.

FIG 210. – GROUP TRAINING OF SWIMMING EXERCISES – A single line of swimming backstroke.
  Each swimmer puts his hands on the shoulders or under the armpits of the one in front of him.

FIG 211 – MASS TRAINING OF SWIMMING EXERCISES. – The end of a complete session. A speed race over a short distance.

432. The baths are taken before meals or at least three hours later.
  The most detailed provisions and also the most practical are always taken before the bath to ensure prompt rescue in case of need.
  One puts, in an appropriate place, a sufficient number of monitors equipped with buoys, ropes, poles, etc..
  They should never lose sight of the students and always be ready to help in the slightest apprehension of danger. Their place is preferably on the shore or in surveillance boats.
  Throughout the swimming exercises, the greatest silence and most perfect order must be strictly observed.
  Only the voices of teachers and instructors should be heard. It is the only way to prevent irreparable injuries that can occur almost instantly.


  (*) These performances, which we established after many experiments at the School of Marine Riflemen were published regulations in the Navy. By Ministerial Dispatch April 4, 1907, a certificate of "master swimmer" is given to any sailor who meets the conditions outlined below.

433. To be considered an "able swimmer”, a subject must perform the following minimum performances:
  1° A course of 100 meters in 3 minutes (no minimum time limit);
  2° A dive underwater for 10 seconds, the body completely submerged.
  These performances correspond to the zero level of swimming tests contained in the form of observing the results.

434. A "master swimmer" not only knows about the different methods of swimming, but also possesses the physical skills necessary to perform a difficult rescue.
  The master swimmer must be above all an excellent diver. This is an essential quality:
  To search mid-water for a person in danger of drowning;
  To keep the head of the person he rescues above water, if necessary by sacrificing his own breathing.

Other qualities that the master swimmer should have are:
  Speed, resistance to fatigue and cold, the courage to jump into the water, the ease to move and to recognize in midwater, the ability to seize and tow a person in danger, and some competence to treat the drowned.

435. The diving performance of a master swimmer must not be less than 60 seconds if one wants to have a subject who counts in an emergency.
  This performance proves excellent condition of internal organs: lungs and heart, and a high tolerance of the circulatory and respiratory functions.
  It gives the certainty that the subject who has reached that at least one time can provide at any time, even if he remained long without exercise or swimming, repeated dives of 15 to 30 seconds on average, which is sufficient in practice.
  The performance of 60 seconds should be attained after a methodical training of several weeks. It obviously can not usually be provided by subjects in a condition of constant training.
  Subjects who train to become master swimmers must suffer a serious medical visit with a careful and special examination of the lungs, heart and ears.
  One or more master swimmers are essential for monitoring group swimming exercises.

436. The performances required of a master swimmer are the following (Water temperature is assumed 17 to 18 degrees C = 62.6 to 64.4 degrees F):
  1° Speed test: 100 meters in 2 minutes.
  2° Endurance test: 1000 meters in 30 minutes (1)
  3° Dive from a height of 5 meters (*).
  4° Stay submerged 60 seconds under water, the body entirely submerged.
  5° Being clothed (sweater, shirt, jacket, pants and shoes) to pick up in 3 meters of water a stone or iron weight of 5 kg (2).
  6° Being dressed (as above) run, with a dummy or a specially appointed man, the rescue exercise of a person in danger of drowning and cross a 25 meter distance.
  7° Justify the theoretical and practical knowledge of the care to the drowned.

(1) By adopting the same process of progression and the same notation as the tests determining the results given in Chapter IX of the 1st part, the performance scale of the 1000m swim is as follows:
30 minutes = 0 point
29               = 1
28               = 2
27               = 3
26               = 4
25               = 5 etc..
(2) In shallow water, preferably (3 meters at most).
(3) In slightly cloudy water, preferably.
Title: Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
Post by: turtlekarma on September 15, 2009, 03:34:48 AM
oh I see, so parkour's kind of a side (just for fun) kind of thing for you?  And your main focus is on natural movement?  geez guy that's lots of material to go through... do translate it or was it written in english?
Title: Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
Post by: Gregg HIPK on September 15, 2009, 12:27:22 PM
Everything here I translated from French. It was a lot of material. Don't blame me ;D
Title: Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
Post by: Pilou on September 15, 2009, 03:29:46 PM
This is quite something!! I see I'll have many more weeks of work to get all the defense and swimming in my paper version...
Gregg, you did a titan's job.

I really feel now that my translations pale in front of yours, which are much more accurate. I'll keep editing down, though, so people with low enthusiasm for reading hav a chance to chew through the meaty parts ;D
Title: Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
Post by: Gregg HIPK on September 15, 2009, 06:05:25 PM
Edit like crazy. There are still a couple points I'm not sure of - so hoping the missing page 34 clears that up.

I was more literal because I had to be. When we started this, I could tell when the Google Translation was way off, but that's about it. I hadn't used French since high school, but I'd done similar translating... Thank God for on-line French-English dictionaries.

The pictures help a lot in the swimming and defense. It would have been a huge pain to translate all the details on "This is how you hold your feet, hands, and arm motions."
Title: Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
Post by: turtlekarma on September 16, 2009, 01:22:03 AM
bad ass gregg, how many languages r u fluent english you 1st language?  How old were you when you started learning them?  I liked the wrestling ones you posted by the way.
Title: Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
Post by: Gregg HIPK on September 16, 2009, 12:17:59 PM
Sometimes I'm fluent in English. Nothing else. Languages are sneaky - if I don't use them, they hide in the dark corners of my mind, and jump out when I don't expect them...

My main focus isn't "natural movement": I like to play outside. I like lots of variety. I don't have much free time or money... MN fits all that, and gives me a solid way to measure my progression.

I keep experimenting, playing, reading...

Title: Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
Post by: Pilou on September 25, 2009, 11:51:25 PM
By the way, this thread should be stickied or something.. it would be a shame to see it plunge into the depths of the forum!!
Title: Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
Post by: Gregg HIPK on September 26, 2009, 10:05:14 AM
Well, right now there isn't a ton of stuff in this section. If it looks like a problem, I'll sticky both books.
Title: Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
Post by: Gregg HIPK on October 08, 2009, 05:17:50 PM
Pilou's given me permission to cut and paste from his .pdf... so I'm hoping to have that all up for you guys by maybe next week: The basic learning exercises, plus walking, running, jumping, climbing, lifting and throwing.
Title: Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
Post by: Gregg HIPK on October 08, 2009, 07:32:59 PM
Sorry to be so confusing and out of sequence: Here we go... I'll add photos later. Thanks Pilou!

Elementary Exercises
[translator's note: from here on, the translation reproduces the full original text, unless stated.]

1. The straight posture and the fundamental arm positions
Straight posture: the neck is vertical; the chin is drawn back to force the neck backward; the
shoulders are low and thrown back; the core is tight; the hips go forward; arms are loose, hands
extended; legs are joined, feet at 60 degrees (first two pictures).
To get there: rotate shoulders backwards, straighten the neck and move the chin back, tighten the
belly, straighten the legs, extend the arms and hands down (third picture) .
(,289,768,667) (,282,754,991)
A poor posture is presented in the last picture.
(,288,741,1075) (,381,721,510)

(,288,569,713) (,332,603,748) (,319,580,730) (,356,638,691)
The four fundamental arm positions: 1. hands to the hips; 2. hands to the back of the neck; 3.
hands to the shoulders; 4. hands to the chest.
1. Hands to the hips: from the straight posture, bring the palms on top of the hips, fingers facing
forward and thumbs back.
2. Hands to the back of the neck (first and second picture): from the straight posture, move arms
laterally to bring hands to the back of the neck, palms flat. Bring elbows and chin back to
maintain the straight posture.
3. Hands to the shoulders (third picture): from the straight posture, bend forearms without moving
arms or shoulders. Hands should curve slightly to touch the shoulders, elbows are back and
aligned with the body.
4. Hands to the chest (last picture): from the straight posture, move arms laterally, elbows back,
forearms bent, hands flat facing down, thumbs touching the chest.
To get there: the arms position derive from the straight posture: rotate the shoulders back and put the
hands to the correct position, straighten neck and chin, core and legs, bring shoulders and elbows as
far back as possible.
Straight posture, wider stance: some moves require starting with the legs separated. Start with any
of the four fundamental arm positions, then move left leg further to the side while bending slightly the
right leg. Center the body, which should keep the straight posture all along.

2. Arm exercises
Unless stated otherwise, all moves start from the straight posture.
1. Raising the arms vertically: Both arms: raise both arms forward at the same time, keeping them straight. Arms are parallel,
palms facing each other, slightly forced beyond vertical toward the back. Go back to initial pose. One arm at a time: raise one arm as before, keeping the other one as far back as possible, palm facing back. Go back to initial pose.
(,267,754,656) (,250,347,703)

2. Raising the arms laterally: raise both arms laterally while rotating the shoulders back to bring the
palms up. Continue all the way to vertical position, then back to horizontal arms. Rotate the shoulders
to get back to the initial pose. The lateral position of the arms should be slightly forced beyond the line
of the shoulders.

3. Raising vertically and lowering laterally the arms: bring the arms up as in first movement, bring
them down as in second, including the rotation of the shoulders.

4. Raising the arms back, laterally and vertically: bring the arms up and back as far as possible,
palms facing each other, move then laterally to a horizontal position while rotating the shoulders to
bring the palms up,take the arms straight to vertical, palms facing each other, go back to initial pose
bringing the arms down in front.
5. Vertical extension of the arms: from the hands to the shoulders posture, simultaneously or alternatively raise the
arms straight and toward the back, then go back to initial pose.

6. Lateral extension of forearms with outside rotation: from the hands to the chest posture, extend the arms laterally,
palms facing down, as far back from the line of the shoulders as possible, then rotate the arms to bring the palms up,
then go back to initial pose.

The arm movements can be done with the hands following the arms, open with joined fingers, but also with open hands, spread fingers, closed hands, thumb on top, hand flexed or extended.

3. Leg exercises
Leg exercises are done with the arms in various positions, by default we are assuming the hands to
the hips position.
(,379,703,586) (,318,565,684) (,433,414,517)
(,366,397,589) (,392,730,483) (,427,757,553) (,190,743,519) (,843,745,462) (,401,748,444) (,393,735,521) (,397,739,526) (,469,733,495) (,430,745,452) (,436,755,431) (,391,722,520) (,390,708,506) (,416,727,466)
1. Heel raises: raise the body as high as possible keeping the legs straight, going on the toes.
2. Lifting the leg straight forward: lift the leg straight in front, with extended foot, bringing the rest of the body
slightly back, but keeping the straight posture.
3. Lifting the leg laterally: lift the leg laterally, with extended foot, bringing the rest of the body slightly to the
other side, still straight.
4. Lifting the leg backward: lift the leg straight to the back as far as possible, keeping the rest of the body straight and
slightly forward.
5. Lifting the leg forward, laterally and back: lift the straight leg forward, bring it laterally, then back.
6. Lifting the thigh and extending the leg: lift the thigh with bent leg, extended foot, then extend leg,
then go straight back or bend the leg again.
7. Lifting the thigh laterally: lift the thigh with bent leg, then extend leg to straight, then go back.
8. Squatting, feet together: going on the toes, squat down opening the knees, keeping the rest of the body straight, then
back up.
9. Squatting, feet apart: going on the toes, squat down opening the knees, keeping the rest of the body straight, then
back up.
[translator's note: these squatting postures are very different from modern squats with the weight on the heels, feet
separated, butt back, and the knees never bending beyond the toes. These squats work different muscles, and may strain
more the knees.]
10. Leaning forward: bring left leg in front, both feet facing out, bend left knee forward keeping the
right leg straight, bending the whole body forward. Back leg, torso and head make a straight line. Go
back and switch legs. The left leg can go obliquely to the left, but shoulders must stay straight.
11. Leaning backward: bring left foot behind, both feet facing out, bend left knee backward, leaning
backward and keeping the right leg and rest of the body in straight line. Same to the right; the back leg
can go obliquely.
12. Leaning laterally: bring left foot further left, heels on the same line, feet facing out, then lean laterally by flexing the left
leg and keeping the right leg and upper body straight. Same to the right, but no oblique variant.
All the leg exercises can be done with the arms in any of the four arm positions, alternating arm and leg exercises in a
single repetition or combining arm and leg exercises simultaneously.

[translator's note: in these moves, be careful to keep the knee straight above the toes, and no further.]

4. Suspension exercises
Suspension exercises are done on various objects: bars, beams, tree branches, horizontal ropes, etc. In all cases, the
arms must be further than shoulder width apart; hands can be facing in, out, or one in and one out. In straight suspensions,
the arms are fully extended, legs are joined, feet and neck are extended.
(,304,723,765) (,336,715,865) (,307,712,787) (,287,717,727) (,189,743,1173) (,190,735,1136) (,254,751,950) (,325,716,865)

1. Jumping to suspension: jump up into a straight suspension, breathe a few times, then jump down with a good
2. Widening the grip: in suspension, do a half pull-up to widen the grip as much as possible, then another one to go
back to normal, both hands at the same time or one after the other.
3. Pull-up: in suspension, do a pull-up to bring the head above the bar, keeping the elbows aligned
with the body. Go down by slowly extending the arms. This can be scaled down by using a low bar,
feet touching the ground in front of the bar.
4. L-sit: in suspension, bring the thighs up, legs bent, feet extended, then extend the legs straight into
L-sit, then back.
5. L-sit up: in suspension, bring the straight legs up from L-sit into a vertical position, then back.
6. L-sit with wide legs: in suspension, bring the legs straight into a L-sit, then spread them as much as possible while
staying horizontal, then back.
Suspension exercises can also be done moving forward or backward on a long bar or parallel bars. These can be done with extended arms, bent arms, straight legs, or in L-sit position.

5. Plank exercises [Support exercises]
In plank, the hands are flat on the ground, slightly beyond shoulder width, fingers pointing forward, arms straight. The
legs are extended, toes touching the ground, the entire body straight. Planks can be made easier by resting the hands on
an elevated object, or harder on resting the feet on an elevated object.

(,744,709,338) (,393,715,426) (,489,739,361) (,500,693,378) (,453,720,370)

1. From standing to plank: three different methods:a) bend the legs and put both hands on the ground in front of the knees,
shoot feet back, shoot feet back in, stand up; b) bend the legs and put both hands on the ground in front of the knees, shoot
hands forward keeping the feet at the same place, bend arms and push back, stand up; c) put hands forward and fall straight
into plank position, go back using one of the previous methods.
2. Wide arm plank: from plank, push up and send the arms as wide as possible, then push up and
send them back in. This move can be made harder by sending the arms as far forward as possible.
3. One arm plank: from plank, spread out both legs, bring all the weight of the body on one arm, hold the other one to the
side of the body or straight above the head.
4. Push-up: from plank, push down to get as close to the ground as possible without touching, then push back up.
5. Side plank: from plank, lift left arm while rotating the body, put left hand in one of the fundamental
positions or perform one of the arm exercises. The rest of the body keeps the straight posture. Same
on the right side.
6. Side plank with leg up: from side plank position above, lift the left leg up on the side, then down.
Plank exercises can include quadrupedal motion exercises as well.

[translator's note: this early edition did not consider quadrupedal motion as a separate subject, thus it is entirely missing. The “quadrupédie” booklet contains much more, as do Hébert's later books on all the fundamental movements.]

6. Balance exercises
Like the leg exercises, balance exercises can be done with the arms in any arm positions. By default
we assume the hands to the hips.

(,759,735,438) (,372,734,427) (,438,703,536) (,466,727,409) (,413,709,574) (,531,741,370) (,348,710,462)

1. Balancing the leg forward: from straight posture, extend left leg in front, leaning back and bending the other leg as much
as possible, then go back. The left leg, torso and head must stay in a straight line. Same on the right side.
2. Balancing the leg backward: from straight posture, extend the left leg backward, leaning forward to maintain a straight line
and bending the right leg, then go back. Same on right side.
3. Balancing the leg to the side: from straight posture, extend the left leg to the side, leaning to the right with the rest
of the body and bending the right leg, then go back. Same on right side.
As with the leg exercises, the balancing exercises can be done with arm exercises, simultaneously or one after the
[translator's note: like the legs exercises, balancing can be more strenuous on the knees than it
appears. Be mindful of keeping the supporting leg as straight as possible, and never force a
movement past your balance point.]

7. Hopping exercises
Hopping exercises are done hands on the hips, jumping mostly in place, feet landing on the toes,
open. The rest of the body keeps the straight posture.

(,553,716,694) (,421,714,625) (,470,751,583) (,389,701,565) (,267,751,408) (,822,747,536)

1. Hopping on joined legs: bend the legs slightly to jump up, extending the feet, land on the toes and
jump right back up, bending the legs as little as possible and keeping a continuous pace. Work on
jumping higher and faster.
2. Hopping and spreading the legs to the side: when hopping up, spread the legs slightly while in
the air and land with legs apart, then join them back at the next hop.
3. Hopping and spreading the legs front and back: when hopping up, bring right leg forward and
left leg back before landing, then switch the legs at the next hop.
4. Hopping with crossed legs: when hopping up, cross the legs, bent, before landing, then switch at
the next hop.
5. Squatting hops: go into a squat, then hop while keeping the squat form.
6. Tuck jumps: when hopping up, tuck the knees up as far as possible, then shoot the legs back
down before landing.

8. Core exercises
Like leg exercises, core exercises can be done with the arms in a variety of poses. We assume
straight posture, hands to the hips by default.

(,310,565,692) (,307,774,799) (,185,609,1425) (,389,713,514)
 (,332,259,690) (,387,711,728) (,353,308,605) (,190,740,484) (,918,736,414) (,524,751,473) (,436,729,589) (,185,734,432) (,836,735,466) (,440,765,405) (,417,690,494)
1. Bending forward: bend the torso forward at the hips, back straight, legs straight.
2. Bending backward: bend the torso back, keeping it straight.
3. Bending to the side: with spread legs, bend the torso to the side, keeping everything straight and in the same plane.
4. Bending forward and back: with spread legs, bend the torso forward, then all the way back, then straight.
5. Torsion with bending: with spread legs, rotate the torso to the left and bend forward, then back
straight, then to the other side.
6. Full rotation: with spread legs, take the side bending position, then move directly to the backward
bending position, then to the other side, then forward. The line of the shoulders should stay parallel to
the line of the hips.

Core exercises can also be done with all sorts of arm exercises, but also with varying leg postures, or with the
body horizontal in any orientation. Core exercises can also be combined with head movements: bending forward, backward, to the side, torsions, rotations. As head and core moves are similar, it is good to use the same groups together.

9. Breathing exercises
Breathing exercises are done like arm movements, but at a slower pace, breathing in while bringing
the arms up and out while lowering them.


1. Breathing with forward arm motion: breathe in and out while bringing the arms up and down in front.
2. Breathing with lateral arm motion: breathe in and out while bringing the arms up and down laterally.
3. Breathing with forward and lateral motion: breathe in and out while bringing the arms up in front
and down laterally.
4. Breathing with backward and lateral motion: breathe in and out while bringing the arms as far
back as possible, then laterally up, then down in front.
5. Breathing with vertical motion: from hands to the shoulders, breathe in and out while bringing the
arms up and down vertically.
6. Breathing with horizontal motion: from hands to the chest, breathe in and out while extending the
arms out and in horizontally.

Breathing exercises are improved by going on the toes when breathing in and back on the flat of the
foot when breathing out.

10. Exercises done with special equipment
Movements of the arms, legs and core can be done with special equipment such as weights,
dumbbells, elastic bands, clubs, benches, bars, etc. Although these are not necessary, and ample
muscular development comes from executing the above motions freehand and to the fullest, they can
be useful to bring variety to the exercises, they enhance muscular development in the arms and
shoulders (weights), various muscle groups (elastic bands), or the forearms (clubs). Static structures
like benches, bars, provide an anchor to fix parts of the body while providing more amplitude or more
localization for a given exercise. Using large weights is however not recommended, as it results in an
excessive muscle growth not matched by the development of the rest of the body. Weights are not
recommended or useful for children.

(,592,690,625) (,302,733,730) (,278,690,998) (,315,546,763) (,316,540,773) (,190,774,1261) (,349,628,665) (,425,435,566) (,414,585,638) (,340,612,622)
Title: Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
Post by: Gregg HIPK on October 08, 2009, 07:46:53 PM
Practical Exercises

1. Walking
Walking is the most natural means of locomotion, the most economical, improves endurance, leg strength, and promotes good breathing and blood circulation.
Walking is done by moving the legs alternatively, pushing with the foot and extending the leg, one leg after the other. When
walking, the body stays in constant contact with the ground with one foot, and with both feet at transition times.
A walk is a succession of steps, the length and the cadence of step determine its speed. At low speed, length of step
increases naturally with an increase of cadence, but stops and even decreases when the cadence is too high. Experience
shows that the pace where the length of step is the highest corresponds to a cadence of about 140 steps a minute in the adult. The fastest walk is not done at this longest step but at the slightly faster cadence of 170 steps a minute. On the other hand, a pace of 110 to 130 steps a minute is more economical, allowing for more efficient long distance walks.
To improve speed in walking, it is better to work on increasing the length of step rather than the cadence. The mechanics of walking are acquired from natural practice and don't need to be taught.
The muscles used in walks can be strengthened by:
– walks on the toes or the heels,
– walks with very long steps,
– very fast walks on short distances,
– slow walks with elevation of the thigh to horizontal and extension of the leg forward.
Posture is improved by maintaining one of the fundamental arm positions while walking. Breathing is made regular by aligning it
with a fixed number of steps, usually 5 or 6, and can be amplified by breathing exercises and songs. Walking should be
done on all types of terrain, in cities and on the countryside, over hills, into fields, etc.
Endurance walks: long walks will require a slow pace, under 130 or 140 steps a minute. The walking posture should be as follows: the chest is slightly tilting forward; the foot touches the ground without shock, almost flat, heel first; the front leg is slightly bent when the foot reaches the ground; the contact point on the foot travels from the heel all the way to the toes; the rear leg is straight,
the upper body straight with the chest open; the arms are slightly bent and swinging lightly, opposite to the legs.
Speed walks: faster walks are limited to short distances. Any walking pace about or beyond 170 steps a minute is pointless, as running will then become more efficient, or running and walking in turn. There are two possible ways of walking at a fast pace. The first is the previously described posture, but increasing the forward tilt of the body and the bending of the front leg with the increased cadence. At high speed, a powerful push off the toes of the back leg reduces the time of two feet contact with the ground, making a move closer to running, the body being very forward, as if falling with each step. The second method is to stay as vertical as possible, with straight legs. The speed is gained from a faster movement of the leg from back to front. The fast motion of the legs and the shock
of the foot hitting the ground makes this method very tiring. The first method is practical in all occasions, in particular when carrying something. The second method is very unpractical, and only to be used in races.

2. Running
Running is the fastest means of locomotion, and the most important of physical exercises. Running involves many muscles of the body, improves breathing and endurance, and develops strength and agility of the lower limbs. When running, the body is projected forward, each foot touching the ground in turn. There is only one foot on the ground at most, and the body is suspended between steps. Indeed, like a walk is a series of steps, a run is a series of jumps, from one foot to the other one. The running speed is the product of the length of the jump by the cadence. The faster the cadence, the longer the jumps; unlike in walking there is no decrease of the jump length with very fast paces. Like in walking, there are more efficient cadences in running: about 170 to 200 jumps a minute for a
sustained endurance pace, up to 230 for a faster run, and no more than around 350 for very short sprints. Cadences lower than 170 jumps a minute are particularly bad, as the body uses a lot of energy to cover a rather short distance, and the slow pace induces a wasteful vertical jumping motion.
The length of the jump depends on the strength and direction of the impulsion from the leg in contact with the ground, exactly like a one-legged length jump. To improve the length of jump, it is important to limit the amount of vertical momentum while reaching further forward, which is done by pushing the leg back as far as possible. The foot of the leg reaching forward should land flat, with the
leg bent, so as to be faster past the vertical position, able to propel the body. By throwing the front leg forward, one could also make a longer jump, but the leg is further from vertical and the heel hits the ground, inducing repetitive shocks.
Touching the ground with just the toes reduces the stride and make the calves work harder. A flat contact brings the leg directly to the vertical position while absorbing the shock of the jump.

[translator's note: there is no usual distinction made in French between the toe area and the ball of the
feet; instructions to land on the toes in running and jumping are likely to mean to land on the ball of the
feet or on the toes and ball of the feet.]

The work of the legs is only secondary in running, the value of a runner depends first on his breathing.
A run should be a long succession of deep cyclic breathing movements. At the fastest paces, such breathing is impossible, this is why races at maximum speed cannot last more than 20 seconds, corresponding to about 100 to 150 meters.
Running is a great way to increase endurance, but one must be careful of adapting the exercise to the fitness of the runners, especially limiting the length of faster runs. Like walking, running is a natural movement acquired by practice. The muscles can be trained further by running on the toes, or by running slowly with long jumps. The breathing is made regular by aligning it with a fixed number of
jumps, always the same (about 5 to 8).
Endurance runs: runs of medium cadence at 170 to 200 jumps a minute are best for long distances or when it is unnecessary to rush and tire oneself much. The best posture is as follows: the body slightly tilted forward; the foot reaching the ground flat, without shock; the leading leg is bent and vertical; the back leg is fully extended; the arms are bent and swinging smoothly; arms and front leg
bending more with increased speed. Breathing is aligned with the cadence, with deep, long breaths. Avoid any vertical hopping motion, overextending the front leg, contacting the ground with the heel, rotating the body, breathing fast or irregularly. In long runs, start and finish always slower, finishing up with walking, core and breathing exercises.
Speed runs: faster runs go beyond 200 jumps a minute, and can become sustained only with training.
Maximum speed runs can reach 350 jumps, and must be trained on short distances of 30 to 150 meters. The most efficient posture is as follows: the body starts bent forward but go back to vertical after a few steps and stays vertical, even bending backward at the end to slow down the pace; the impulse of the back leg is as strong as possible; the front leg is bent lower, foot still reaching the
ground flat; the arms are swinging more vigorously. A great exercise to improve the body's ability for sudden, violent effort
is the start of speed races. Races can be done with prepared or unprepared start. For unprepared starts, one can stand
straight, sitting or lying down, facing any direction. At the signal, jump to face the correct direction and start the run In
prepared runs, the body is bent forward, legs apart and ready, weight on the front or back leg. Speed runs are the most
practical to train as a quick means of transportation or a rescue exercise.

3. Jumping
Jumping consists in giving an impulse of the body to go over a space or an obstacle in one jump.
Jumps strengthen the lower limbs and the core, train the legs to absorb impact, improve agility and balance. Applied jumps over an obstacle also work on fear, improving confidence, focus and readiness.
Jumping can be decomposed into four parts: the preparation, the impulse, the suspension and the fall.
The preparation consists in bending and loading the legs while sending the arms back; the impulse is the explosive extension of the legs while bringing the arms up and forward; the suspension starts when the feet leave the ground, the legs are brought to the best position to overcome the obstacle, while the arms go down; the fall consists in absorbing the impact from the jump, when touching the
ground, feet reaching and legs bending to absorb, arms used to maintain balance. The movement of the arms is very important in the jump and help get a greater impulsion and regain balance during the fall. Training should start with long jumps and high jumps, first without and then with a run-up. Follow this with a very slow progression into deep jumps, and make sure to work on a soft surface. Applied jumps with real obstacles should only occur when the legs are strong enough and the fall sufficiently trained to be safe.

Unlike walking and running, learning to jump can be decomposed, as in these three preparatory exercises:
1. Preparation and impulse: with the arms up and vertical, hands into fists, bend the legs while going on the toes, knees, toes and heels joined, lowering the arms straight to bring them behind. Then explode up (staying on the ground) while bringing the arms back to vertical.
2. Fall: bend the legs while going on the toes, heels together, knees and toes open, arms up and vertical, then go quickly back to standing, lowering the arms. In practice, the fall is not decomposed, the arms are only brought up enough to bring balance back. The legs should resist the fall to avoid landing too low, but never land with straight legs.
3. Chain all four movements: preparation, impulse, then jump up and land as in the first two exercises.

Jumps with and without a run-up
1. Standing high jumps going over an obstacle: start facing the obstacle, feet together, at a distance about half the height of
the obstacle. Bring the arms in front, hands closed, then bend the legs going on the toes and bring the arms back (preparation). Extend the legs and bring arms up (impulse), go over the obstacle tucking the legs in, keeping the arms up. As soon as the obstacle is passed (suspension), extend the feet toward the ground and lower the arms. Touch the ground with the toes (fall), legs bent without excess, arms balancing.
Going onto an obstacle: perform the preparation and impulse as above. Land on the obstacle, legs tucked, arms up. In this type of jump, there no real suspension or fall happening, one can arrive fully squatting on the obstacle.

2. Standing long jump: start from the edge of the obstacle or open space to pass. Bring the arms in front, hands closed, then bend the legs going on the toes and bring the arms back (preparation). Tilt the body forward, then extend the legs and bring arms up (impulse). Give the impulse at the moment where the body starts to fall forward. The bring the arms down (suspension). The feet touch the ground together in front of the body, heels first (fall). It is not necessary to tuck the legs as much in long jumps, only the thighs must be bent. Landing on the heels is acceptable as the momentum is mostly horizontal. However, one must be careful if the ground is slippery.

3. Depth jumps
  Simple jump, facing forward: start facing forward at the edge of the obstacle, squat to lower the height of the fall and put both hands on the edge (preparation). Leave the obstacle without a jump but bringing the body forward horizontally, so as to avoid falling straight down (impulse). During the suspension, reach down with the legs, and keep the arms lowered. Touch the ground with the toes, resisting with the legs to avoid squatting too low.
  Simple jump, facing backward: start at the edge of the obstacle, facing backward. Do everything as before, being careful to push away with the hands when leaving the obstacle, and to keep the body tilted forward to avoid falling on the back upon landing.

  Forward jump, sitting: sit at the edge of the obstacle, legs down. Put both hands on the edge, fingers facing forward, leaning forward. Push away with the arms while throwing the legs forward. If the obstacle allows it, swing the legs a few times before jumping.
  Backward jump, hands pressed: from a holding position with the hands on the obstacle, bend the arms to get on the stomach, then throw the legs backward. If the obstacle allows it, swing the legs a few times before jumping.
  Vertical jump, from a suspension: if suspended by the hands to a bar, swing the legs forward, then when they go backward do a small push up with the arms and open the hands right away. Avoid dropping from a static position, as it makes it difficult to regain balance. If swinging already, the best is to let go when the legs are going backward. If jumping when the legs are going forward, send the
upper body strongly forward to avoid falling on the back.

Vertical jump, from hanging to a wall: take one hand off the wall and bring it at waist level, push strongly with hand and leg away from the wall.
Depth jumps done from a height or on hard surfaces are dangerous for the feet, the ankles and the knees. It is necessary to train progressively from lower to higher jumps. On a hard surface like stone, earth, wood floor, jumps of about 2 meters already put considerable strain on the feet. On a prepared ground like sand or well turned earth, a trained person may jump up to 4 meters without harm.

4. Running high jump
Jump over an obstacle: the jump is done on one foot, after a run-up of 5 to 10 meters. The upper body is vertical or slightly back. The arms are brought forward at the time of the jump, then the obstacle is passed either by bringing the legs bent under the hips, feet close to the thighs, or extending the feet in front, keeping the chest forward. Arms are kept up until the obstacle is passed, then lowered as the legs are extended down. Land on the toes, legs bent, arms balancing.

Jump onto an obstacle: start on one foot as above, then jump onto the obstacle with the legs bent, feet close to the hips, arms up. This type of jump is useful when what is beyond the obstacle is unknown.

Jump while maintaining the run: start on one foot, jump over the obstacle by passing the other leg first,
then the jumping leg. The first leg is very bent, knee up, the other leg to the side or under the body.
The chest is leaning forward during the jump. Land on the first leg, on the toes, then throw the jumping
leg forward to keep running.

5. Running long jump
with a long run: like the running high jump, this jump is done from one foot after a run. In this case, the run must be long enough to gain maximum speed, as the speed of the run determines the length of the jump. The chest is slightly forward during the jump, the legs are joined but don't need to be tucked. During the fall, the heels touch the ground first, the arms go down and back, and then forward and up again to regain balance.

With a single step: bring the left foot forward, bend the right leg and bring the weight of the body on the right leg while throwing
the arms back (preparation). Extend vigorously the right leg, then the left, while bringing the arms forward and up (impulse).
Bring the legs together during the suspension and land on the heels. This jump doesn't cover more distance than the standing
long jump, but is easier.

6. Side jump
standing side jump: stand close to the obstacle on the side, feet together. Bring the arms up and forward, then bend the legs while throwing the arms back (preparation). Extend the legs vigorously while bringing the arms up and forward and leaning toward the obstacle (impulse). Raise the legs straight one after the other, the one closest to the obstacle first.
The knee comes to meet the chest, still leaning toward the obstacle, arms up. After the obstacle, lower the arms (suspension). Land on both legs successively, on the toes (fall).

Standing long side jump: bring the arms to the side opposed to the jump, while leaning in the jumping direction with bent legs (preparation). Throw the arms in the jumping direction and extend the legs (impulse), land on the flat of the feet, legs
slightly bent, and go back up right away, arms balancing.

Running side jump: the run is almost parallel to the obstacle, the jump uses one leg. Assuming a jump to the right side, jump from the left foot, and pass the obstacle first with the right leg extended in front, then the left, arms up. After the obstacle, lower the arms and land on the toes of the feet, first the right then the left.

Depth side jump: proceed as in the depth jump forward or backward, far enough from the obstacle pushing away with the hand.

7. Combined jumps: any combination of jumps 1-6. Make sure to always land on the toes after any jump, even a long jump, every time the landing point is lower than the starting point. Combinations may include: high long jump, high depth jump, long depth jump, high long depth jump, long depth jump from sitting or hands pressed, long depth jump from a suspension.

Jumps with hands on the obstacle
1. Jump onto an obstacle
from standing: put both hands on the obstacle, jump while pressing from the wrists, land on the obstacle with both feet
between the arms.
from running: run up a few steps, jump from both feet, reach to put the hands on the obstacle and proceed as before.

2. Jump over the obstacle with legs on one side of the arms from standing: put both hands on the obstacle, jump while
pressing from the wrists, swing the legs to one side, remove the hand in front of the body and land on the other side.
from running: same move after a quick run-up, jumping from both feet
from a hand hold: bend the body forward on the hands, arm straight, then swing the legs back and forth and then over the
obstacle to the side as above.

3. Jump over the obstacle with one hand
from standing: stand sideways, one hand on the obstacle. Swing both legs in front as in the side jump, the leg closest to
the obstacle first.
from running: proceed as above from a run-up, jumping as in the running side jump.

4. Jump over the obstacle feet between hands
from standing: put both hand son the obstacle, jump while pressing from the wrists, bring the legs between the arms, tucked in.
from running: proceed as above from a run-up, jumping on both feet.

When an obstacle is made of several horizontal bars arranged one above the other, proceed as follows.
1. Jump between the bars: put one hand on the lower bar, one on the higher bar. Jump between the bars, bringing the legs together in front first. Pull the body up with higher hand, push back with lower hand.
2. Vault over the higher bar: put both hands on higher bar, going on hand hold, then reach down to the lower bar with the left hand. Rotate the body toward the right above the bar, legs straight, holding and pushing with the lower hand. Let go with the hands and land.
Title: Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
Post by: Gregg HIPK on October 08, 2009, 08:14:41 PM
5. Climbing
Climbing consists in raising or moving the body using the arms or the arms and legs from a suspension or a holding position. It is one of the most useful practical exercises: climbing is important in many different situations from reaching a high place to passing an elevated obstacle to fleeing from danger vertically. Climbing with the arms and legs recruits the muscles of the entire body, in particular the core and upper limbs. However, climbing can be a detrimental exercise: it requires violent efforts from muscles which physiological function is not the locomotion of the upper body; it can encourage an excessive development of upper body musculature and slow regular growth in teenagers; it requires a posture of the shoulders that compresses the thoracic cage. Climbing can also be very beneficial to the development of upper body strength, but only in moderate amounts and using the legs as much as possible to reduce the strain on upper limbs hold. Exercises to correct the posture of the shoulders should be combined with climbing whenever possible. Among the following exercises, almost none have a deforming effect. However, many of the playful exercises in gymnastics have a deforming effect and should be avoided. Progressive training in climbing starts with simple suspension exercises and climbs on ladders, double ropes or bars where the elbows can be kept in the plane of the shoulders and the chest open. Only then comes climbing on the rope, first using the feet. Finally, train topping out. Being able to climb some distance on the rope with only the arms is a good criterion of climbing abilities: other exercises come easily when this is mastered.

Climbing vertical ropes, bars, etc. fixed or free standing

1. Climbing with arms and legs, pinching the rope: hold the rope as high as possible, put the right knee and front of the ankle behind the
rope, the left calf pressing in front of it. Climb up with the arms, bend the legs bringing the knees up high. Press on the rope with the legs, bringing the arms up one after the other and continue. To go down, move the arms below one another in turn, while pressing on the rope with the legs.

2. Climbing with arms and legs, rope rolled around one leg: hold the rope as high as possible, pull up, bring the knees up. Let the rope
go between the thighs, rolling it around one leg behind the calf onto the front of the ankle. Press on the rope with the sole of the other foot at the ankle. Take the hands off the rope one after the other, reaching up, straightening the legs. Pull up again, letting go of the rope with the legs or letting it slide around the leg. Bring the knees up, and roll the rope as
before. When the rope is free standing, bring the legs forward rather than keeping them vertical, to provide a better grip for the feet. To go down, move the arms below one another in turn, while pressing on the rope with the legs. This climbing method requires
more work from the legs, but the pose can be held for a longer time, to rest the arms or to free one or both hands; if letting go of both hands, the rope must go behind the back to avoid falling backward.

3. Climbing with the arms only: hold the rope as high as possible, reach up with one hand alternatively, keeping the legs bent up, rope
between the legs or to the side. Go down in the same way. This method is useful to reach quickly a close height or to momentarily
relieve the legs in a climb. It is an important exercise to practice for the climbing muscles.

4. Climbing on two ropes: grab one rope in each hand, and climb using one of the above methods, rolling one rope around the leg if needed. This method has little practical use, but is a great exercise for practicing, keeping the chest open and the shoulders

Climbing inclined ropes and chains
Inclined ropes are ropes fixed at both ends, having some inclination, even to be horizontal. It is useful for climbing on scaffolds, going down from a window to the ground with a rope in a fire, etc.

1. Climbing with both hands, rope under the knee: to go up or down, keep the rope between the legs, folding one or both calves on the rope, or bring the legs with calf on the rope one after the other, moving opposite arm and leg at the same time, or keep the rope on the side, one calf resting on it. Hands are moved one after the other in all cases. This climb should be practiced going up and down,
head first or feet first. Keeping the head higher is the most efficient method. For ropes making an arc, if the head
starts higher, it will become lower than the feet past the middle of the rope. To always keep the head higher, proceed as follows: at the middle, if the right leg is folded above the rope, turn the body to the right and reach beyond the leg with the right hand, then the left while bending the leg to keep it engaged on the rope. Bring the left leg under the rope, then fold it above the rope before removing the right leg. Note that turning to the other side would make the leg go right away.

2. Climbing with both hands, one heel hooked on the rope: same method as above, using the heel rather than the folded leg.

3. Climbing above the rope: it is sometimes necessary to climb like this to reach an object or free one or both hands. Hold the
rope with both hands and one leg, foot hooked on the rope, the other leg straight and balancing. This method is completely
unpractical on arc-shaped ropes.

4. Climbing with the hands only: being suspended by the hands, move one hand after the other to progress up or down.
This method is a good strengthening exercise, and is useful for instance if the legs were to slip from the rope.

Climbing beams, masts, columns and other vertical bars
This way of climbing can be useful to reach a ceiling from a side beam, to move around a boat, to climb trees, etc.

1. Climbing with crossed arms, leg front and back: grab the mast as high as possible with both arms
crossed, hugging the mast, bend up the legs as much as possible, one with the calf around the mast, the other
with the front of the foot pressing against the mast. Extend the legs and reach up with both arms, then hug
the mast tightly while bending the legs up, etc. To go down, perform the same movements in opposite order.
This method is the most effective unless the mast is too thick.

2. Climbing with crossed legs: here, both legs are kept around the mast and crossed. A successive pressing of the upper and lower limbs as above allows to go up or down. This method is not very good to go up, but is efficient for going down or staying at some level,
on masts of limited width.

3. Climbing with arms holding the mast, legs on both sides: this is a method for a mast that is too wide to cross arms or legs around. The lower limbs are used by strongly pressing against the sides of the mast with the feet and the knees.

4. Climbing with hands and the feet, without pressing the knees: this method is preferably used bare feet and with masts of smaller width or even a straight rope. It is a harder way, but faster than the other techniques.

All these climbing techniques have a particularly intense effect on the abductor muscles of the legs.

Climbing ladders and vertical parallel bars, straight or inclined
There are two sorts of ladders: rope ladders and regular wooden or metal ladders. Climbing on rope ladders can be done as follows:

1. Climbing on the ladder: grab the sides of the ladder as high as possible, put both feet on a rung, knees open and out, weight on
the outside of the feet. Reach up on the side with the left hand while moving the right foot up one rung, and repeat on the other
side. Use the same method to go down. To be efficient, move the arm and leg simultaneously while keeping the torso straight, and
avoid letting the legs go forward which would require more work from the arms.

2. Climbing on the side of the ladder: grab one side of the ladder, put both heels on a rung, feet pointing outside and legs around the ladder side. Climb as above, moving one arm and opposite foot at the same time. This method is much faster and easier than the first one.

On wood or metal ladders, one can use the following techniques:
1. Climbing on top or under with the hands and feet: put the feet on the rungs and the hands either on the side or the rungs. Go up moving either the same leg and arm or the opposite leg and arm (better solution) at the same time. When climbing from the
underside of an inclined ladder, pushing hard with the legs and keeping the body close to the ladder will lower the work of the arms. Climbing on top of the ladder being easy, this skill must be practiced to increase speed walking and even running on the rungs.

2. Climbing under the ladder with the hands only (inclined ladders): put the hands on a rung, go up or down by moving the hands, keeping the rest of the body hanging straight. This method is the most practical one in the case of very inclined or nearly horizontal ladders. It is also a great exercise for the climbing muscles. It is sometimes necessary to go under the ladder from above, or on top from below, without going all the way up or down. This exercise is easy when the ladder is fixed, but otherwise you must proceed
as follows to avoid tipping it: being above and close to the ladder, bring the left foot on the right side of the rung, and the right leg outside the ladder. Bring the left hand to grab the right side, at shoulder height. Then, reach under the ladder with the right hand for the rung just above the left hand, aiming far from the body. Pull hard with the right arm, bring the right foot under the ladder, onto the same rung as the left foot. Finish by bringing the left foot and hand on the underside of the ladder. Use a similar technique to go from under to be on top of the ladder.

A ladder may have broken rungs; one can still climb it using one of the following methods designed for any type of vertical or inclined
parallel bars:
1. Climbing with hands and feet, knees inside or outside (vertical bars): reach up the bars with the hands, go up by flexing
the arms. Bend the legs and press them against the bars, either knees inside and feet outside or knees outside and feet inside. Press
in or out with the knees, depending on their position, and reach up with the hands. Bend the legs up, and repeat the motion. Same
method for going down.
2. Climbing on inclined bars: from above: do as in the previous method. From under: bring the bars in the fold of the knees or the
heels as in the climbing methods for a single bar.

Climbing along a wall
Climbing up and down walls finds many applications, whether to escape a fire, go down a well, get out of the water, using a rope, a
beam or the surface of the wall. The ways to climb up ropes, beams, etc, are as follows:

1. Climbing with the hands and feet: grab the rope, pole, beam with the hands and place it between the legs or to one side. Bring the
legs up on the wall, knees as open and high as possible, feet pointing outward. Climb by moving hands and feet in succession, or moving opposite limbs together, or moving on side after the other. The most efficient method consists in keeping the rope between the legs and moving opposite limbs together. The legs provide a push upward and slightly away for the wall. The body must stay
close to the wall, the knees out and open to reduce the work of the arms and climb faster.

2. Climbing with the hands, holding the rope between the thighs, feet resting on the wall: reach up with the arms on the
rope, bend arms and legs, press the rope between the thighs, crossing the legs if needed, and use the feet to stay away from
the wall. Reach up with hands and repeat. This method is useful when the wall is too slippery for the feet, and the rope
can be kept far enough from the wall.

Climbing can also be done without any device, with one of the following methods.
1. Climbing using the wall surface: if the wall has an irregular surface, holds, etc, one can climb using these to rest the hands
and feet, keeping the body close to the surface of the wall.
2. Climbing with the help of someone: the helper squats facing the wall, hands resting on it. Stand and balance on his shoulders, hands on the wall. The helper then stands up with the climber. If needed, he can grab the climber's feet and extend the arms further up. Alternatively, the helper can stand back against the wall, hands crossed in front, palms up. The climber puts a foot on the hands and walk up, to go further he can put his other foot on the helper's shoulder.
3. Climbing with two helpers: the two helpers kneel sideways to the wall, facing each other, closest knee to the wall on the ground. They lock the opposite hands, palms up. The climber steps on the hands and puts his hands on the wall, then the helpers stand up, using their free hand against the wall. Alternatively, the helpers can stand facing the wall, locking the inside hand between them, and the climber steps first on their hands then on their shoulders.

Pulling oneself up
Pulling oneself up consists in going from a suspension to a hold on the arms, or going from below to above the obstacle. Pulling
up is probably the most important climbing exercise, as it is almost impossible to finish a climb without having to get on top
of something.
1. Pulling up by rotating the body backward: from a suspension under the beam, pull up with the arms, bring the legs as high as possible in front of the beam, then above by bending the body backward, still pulling with the arms. Keep rotating until the stomach is above the beam, then hold straight.
Go down by the opposite movement. This method has very few practical applications, as it requires a bar with leg space and small enough to provide a good grip. However, it is a good exercise of the core muscles. To that end, it can be made harder by bringing the
legs up high before doing the pull-up with the arms.

2. Pulling up on one leg and the forearms or wrists: from a suspension under the beam, pull up with the arms, bring the legs as high as possible in front of the beam, then lean the body to the right and hook the right leg, calf above the beam, on the right side of the hand. Get on top by either bringing the forearms flat on the object, then spreading apart the hands, or using the wrists, bringing the forearms straight up above the beam. In any case, swinging the other leg up and down will provide momentum for the climb just before getting on top.
Once up, unhook the leg to go onto a straight hold. Go down by the opposite movement. This method is the easiest for pulling
up, but requires a bar or a small beam with good grip and enough space to swing the leg.

3. Pulling up on the forearms: from a suspension with hands close, pull up with the arms while bringing the legs up high.
Bring both forearms up on the beam, letting go with the hands, and swinging the legs vigorously up and down to help the tilt of
the body forward above the beam. Get above the bar spreading the hands apart, and rest the stomach on the bar before going
into the holding posture. Go down with the opposite movement.

If climbing a wall or if there are objects behind the bar, the legs can use them to push up and away and help in the pulling
motion. This method is the most practical in most circumstances.

4. Pulling up alternatively on the wrists: from a suspension, pull up with the arms while bringing the legs up in front. Bring
the weight of the body on the left wrist, and make the right arm vertical. Shift the weight to the right side with a slight left torsion
of the body, and pull the left forearm above the bar, helping by moving the legs up and down. Push strongly with the arms to
rest the stomach on the bar before going into the holding posture. Go down with the opposite movement. As before, if
there are objects or a wall under the bar, the legs can use them to push up. This method is convenient on bars with a good grip,
and does not require to let go like the previous method.

5. Pulling up simultaneously on the wrists: from a suspension, pull up with the arms while bringing the legs up in front.
Engage the wrists above the object with a strong push, bringing the weight on the hands flat toward the back of the palm,
turning the fingers inward if needed. As the wrists are engaged, bend the arms, then vigorously swing the legs up and down
and pull over the bar, keeping the elbows close to the body. From there, reach the holding posture. Go down with the opposite movement. As before, if there are objects or a wall under the bar, the legs can use them to push up. This method is not much harder than the previous one, and depends on the good placement of the wrists and the swinging of the legs. Of all methods, it is the fastest.

Reaching high places without vertigo
To reach a high place, one must first become insensitive to vertigo. Vertigo is a sort of stunned state where one looses will power and the proper notion of things, caused by feeling the void below or lacking confidence. One can conquer vertigo with gradual exercises meant to improve balance and reduce the fear of the void.
1. Balancing: on an elevated object, perform the following exercises: forward raise of the leg; backward raise of the leg; side raise of the leg; forward balancing of the leg; backward balancing of the leg; side balancing of the leg. The hands can follow the fundamental positions or help maintain balance.
2. Fighting the void: gradually go onto higher and higher places, first using safe and easy means: stairwells, ladders,
stools, etc. Once up onto a safe location, look down toward the ground. When more assured, climb up with some of the more
demanding climbing methods described above.

Reaching a hazardous spot
One may have to stay on a spot after climbing, to take a break, help someone, recover an object, etc. This is not an issue if the
spot is safe, but is harder if there are dangers of losing balance or falling.
After a climb followed by a pulling up, we find ourselves holding on the arms and stomach, and we seek to leave this posture to
sit, straddle or stand on the obstacle depending on the circumstances. The following exercises must be done on a low
object first, before trying them on high places.

1. Sitting from a straight hold: turn around on one arm, letting go with the other hand and leaning the body forward, or bring
one leg over the object, then the other. Do the opposite to go back to a hold.
2. Straddling from a straight hold: bring one leg over the object. Do the opposite to go back to a hold.
3. Standing from a straight hold: bring the knees one after the other on top of the object, then stand up. Do the opposite to go
back to a hold.
4. From standing, straddle the object and back: bring the feet together, bend the legs down, put the hands on the object,
close to the feet, fingers out. Bring the weight of the body on the wrists and lean slightly forward, move the feet slowly on
both sides of the object, sit. To go back up, put the hands close to the thighs on the object, swing the legs a couple of times
backward and get the feet on the object, then stand up.

Passing a dangerous spot
By a dangerous spot we mean a narrow passage, beam, bar from which a fall is possible. Depending on the type of obstacle, use one of the following methods:
1. From a hold, move sideways: to go left, press the stomach and bring the right hand next to the right thigh, fingers forward.
Bring the left hand out and pull the body up and toward the left hand, then go back on the stomach. Repeat the move to keep
going left, or reverse to go right.
2. From sitting, move sideways: to go left, bring the right hand next to the right thigh, fingers forward. Bring the left hand
out and raise the body up and toward the left hand, then sit back on the object. Repeat the move to keep going left, or
reverse to go right.
3. From straddling, move forward: reach in front of the thighs with the hands, thumbs up and fingers out, raise the body with
the arms, balancing with the legs and move to sit forward, hands touching the thighs.
4. From straddling, move backward: put the hands in front of the thighs, thumbs up and fingers out. Swing the legs forward
then back, raise the body backward with a strong impulse from the wrists, bring the hands close to the thighs again and go on.
5. From standing, walk forward: bring one foot in front of the other, heel pointing toward the middle of the other foot, arms
out for balancing, and keep going with the feet pointing out, eyes looking just in front of the feet. Smaller steps help
maintain a better balance.
6. From standing, walk backward: perform the same steps as in the forward walk, with extra care.
7. From standing, walk sideways: stand sideways, feet together pointing slightly out, arms loose. Bring the right foot to the right followed by the left foot, and so on.
Proceed similarly to go left.
8. From standing, turn around: turn on the spot using the arms to stay balanced.

Climbs of all sorts
Perform climbs and progressions of all sorts on horizontal, vertical or inclined surfaces using the arms and legs or the arms only. Use all sorts of buildings, trees, ropes, beams, etc.
Learn to stay in suspension in different ways: using one hand, one hand and elbow, one hand and arm locked at the armpit, both elbows, both arms, head down with hands and calves, head down with calves only, head down with one calf, etc. Train to maintain the
suspension for longer times, using will power to fight muscular tiredness and pain.
Such exercises are important for any situation where safety rests on a sure hold from the hand.

Title: Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
Post by: Gregg HIPK on October 08, 2009, 08:15:39 PM
6. Lifting
Lifting consists in grasping with the hands objects of various size and shape to move them, lift them up or carry them. Often it is not only necessary to be skilled at handling large and heavy objects but also to have the required strength to carry them. In particular, it is important to be able to carry with caution a sick or injured person without a vehicle or a stretcher.
Lifting exercises have an intense effect on developing the muscles of the shoulders and the lumbar region. However, they have little or no hygienic effect, especially when the efforts are violent. It is important, when using lifting as a strengthening exercise, to carefully consider the weight of the objects to lift. Lighter objects are preferred, because the muscular development depends more on the
number of repetitions than on the intensity of the effort. For instance, it is better to lift a weight of 20 pounds 20 to 30 times than an object 4 or 5 times heavier just once.
An object is to be considered too heavy if it doesn't allow repeated lifting. To reach the ability to lift heavy weights, one must start with light objects and progressively increase the weight. As in any other exercise, only try to use maximum strength very occasionally.
One must be careful with lifting exercises. When done with weights that are too heavy, they have the following drawbacks: 1. they develop muscles very fast, which might be dangerous for persons of insufficient organic resistance; 2. they stop the growth of teenagers; 3. they stiffen the muscles and remove all their flexibility; 4. they tire the heart from the short and intense work they require; 5. they can produce accidents like hernias, forced heart, tearing of muscles and tendons, etc.

In general, the training of lifting skills is done in two ways: with objects like dumbbells, kettlebells, barbells, or stones of known weight, for a methodical gradation of the exercises; with objects of various shape and size requiring to be handled with dexterity, like bags, parcels, etc.

Lifting with two hands
1. Clean and press: place the heels on a line, feet together or slightly apart, flex the legs and bend down and forward. Grab
the object with both hands and lift it in one move to shoulder height, without resting it on the chest. Pause at the shoulders,
legs straight and arms bent, then extend the arms to bring the object over the head with straight arms.
During the extension of the arms, the legs are straight, the feet stay in the same position, the core is tight and the body is not
bent backward or to the side. This lifting method has little practical use, it is rather a conventional exercise for developing and measuring strength.

[translator's note: a long description of the timed clean and press of a 40kg weight used in measuring progress in lifting has been omitted here.]

2. Clean and jerk: place the heels on a line, feet together or slightly apart, flex the legs and bend down and forward. Grab the object with both hands and lift it in one move to shoulder height, without resting it on the chest. Pause at the shoulders, legs straight and arms bent, then throw the object to straight arms with a sudden flexing and extension of the legs, staggering the legs front and back or keeping them in the same position. Note that the raising of the object is almost entirely done by the motion of the lower limbs; the extension of the arms must start with the extension of the legs, not their flexing. This method is the most practical to lift any heavy

3. Snatch: place the heels on a line, feet together or slightly apart, flex the legs and bend down and forward. Grab the object with both hands and lift it in one move all the way to straight arms, without pausing at shoulder level. Use the legs as much as possible, extending them vigorously and staggering them if needed. Pull the object vertically, as close as possible of the body. Increase its speed before reaching shoulder level, where the wrists are rotated. Straighten the arms before the end of the extension of the legs. This method is nothing more than a throw without a pause at the shoulders. It requires about the same strength as the clean and press, but is a more complete exercise. Like the throw, it has an intense effect on the muscular development of the legs.

Lifting with one hand
1. Clean and press: same procedure as in the two handed version. Grab the object with one hand, bring it to the shoulder
in one move. Pause at the shoulder, then extend the arm up to raise the object above the head, keeping the legs and body
2. Clean and jerk: same procedure as in the two handed version. Grab the object with one hand and bring it to the
shoulder in one move. Throw it upward to full extension of the arm with a strong flexing and extension of the legs.
3. Snatch: same procedure as in the two handed version. Grab the object with one hand, and pull upward to raise it all the way
to full extension of the arm in one move, with as much help as possible from the legs.

There are two other classical techniques for lifting with one hand, but with little practical interest:
4. Press pull: it is a sort of snatch with the arms kept fully extended. With feet apart, grab the object with one hand and place it between the legs, slightly behind. Raise the upper body suddenly to bring the object above the head in one move, keeping the arm straight.
5. Bend press: it is a sort of press without maintaining a correct posture. Grab the object with one hand and bring it to the shoulder in one move, then pause at the shoulder. Raise the object smoothly above the head to a full extension of the arm, bending the body
at will and flexing the legs to help.

Lifting and carrying objects and charges of all sorts
The classical exercises above can only be practiced with compact objects where the hand can have a good grip. They must be complemented with handling, lifting and carrying objects and charges of all sorts, in particular with the following exercise: lifting and carrying a bag on the shoulder. Whatever the shape or size of the object, the technique to use is always similar to lifting and carrying a bag. Start learning and training the proper form first with lighter bags filled with straw, cotton, seaweed or sawdust, then progressively move on to heavier bags by adding sand or earth.
Use one of the two following methods, depending on the weight of the bag. The descriptions are made for carrying the bag on the right shoulder, but carrying on the left shoulder follows the same rules.

1. Lifting a light bag: place the bag straight and well balanced, and grab it with both hands near its head. Lift it slightly from the
ground while flexing the legs, and turn it around to bring its head to rest on the right thigh, as close as possible from the
abdomen. Help the move by pushing vigorously with the right knee, keeping the legs flexed. When the bag flips upside down,
grab and hug the middle with both arms. Stand up while placing the bag well balanced on the right shoulder.

2. Lifting a heavy bag: place the bag flat on the ground, head to the left and bottom to the right. Grab the head with the left hand and the corner of the bottom with the right hand, close to the feet. Flexing the legs, lifting the bag in one move to rest it on both thighs, as close as possible from the abdomen. Let go with the left hand and grab around the middle with the left arm, then let go with the right hand to grab the further corner of the bottom. Flip the bag toward the left, in order to bring the bottom up and the head to rest on the right thigh, close to the abdomen, keeping the legs flexed. Let go with the right hand and grab around the middle with the right arm, then stand up while placing the bag well balanced on the right shoulder.

Two other exercises can be useful when several persons are available: lifting and carrying a beam, branch or tree, and stand a ladder vertically.
To lift onto the shoulder a beam or a long object, the team starts at the heavier end of the object, which is the first to load. They grab it and lift it up, leaving the other end on the ground. A sufficient number of persons bring it on their shoulder, then the others go to the lighter end and load it on their shoulder. The team can finally move to share evenly the weight.
To stand a ladder vertically, start by placing the foot or base of the ladder against a wall or a fixed object. Lift the other end, each person getting under the lifted part of the ladder after one another. Raise the arms vertically to raise the ladder into a vertical position. If there is no fixed object to use, one or two persons stand between the first and second rung, holding the ladder with the arms and leaning to bring their weight back as the ladder is raised. That way, the base of the ladder is constrained by their weight, and it can be raised as described above.

Transporting sick or injured persons
The carrying techniques depend on circumstances: the weight of the person to carry, the seriousness of his state, the distance to cover, the number of available persons, etc.
1. Holding the person by the middle under the arm: grab the person to carry lying down on the ground under the armpits, from the back. Lift him and carefully place him under an arm, his head in front and his legs back. The arm of the carrying person is
placed under the belly of the carried one, to keep the chest free. This method is most practical when the rescuer is alone, the rescued man is not too heavy and the distance to cover is short, or one needs to walk up some stairs, in which case the free arm can be used to grab the handrail.
2. Carrying the person in both arms: this method conventionally used to carry children is only practical if the person to carry is light and the distance to cover is short.
3. Carrying the person on the back: the carrier holds the leg of the carried person, who crosses his arms around the carrier's chest. This method allows to carry for a long distance someone hurt at the leg or the head with enough strength to hold on with his arms.
4. Carrying the person sitting on one or both shoulders: place the person on the back, then use the arms to raise him to the shoulders, or squat to let the person sit directly on the shoulders. To move on one shoulder, say the left, bring the right leg up over the head, then the carrier grabs both legs with the left arm while providing support with the right arm. If the carried person can stand, one can start from a squat and lift him directly on the shoulder. Like the previous method, these two are useful to carry over a long distance someone with minor injuries.
5. Carrying the person on his belly over the shoulder or the neck: on the shoulder: with the person lying down, kneel on his left and put the left knee on the ground. Grab him by the left arm, lifting his body to bring his chest to rest on the right leg. Hold him around the waist, left arm under and right arm over. Stand up and bring the person onto the left shoulder lifting him vigorously, so that his legs go over the left shoulder to the back, the upper body staying forward. Same method for the right shoulder.

On the neck: once the person is over the left shoulder, grab his legs with the other arm to bring them on the right shoulder.
6. Two-person carry by the arms and legs: one of the carriers lifts the person under the arm pits, and the other by the legs, placing himself between the legs or to the side. Or one person grabs the right arm and right leg, and the other the left arm and left leg. This method works for a person sick, injured or dead if the distance to cover is short.
7. The simple stretcher (with two carriers): the two carriers hold hands, left hand with right hand, grasping each other by the  phalanges. They squat down to let the carried person sit on their arms and place their arms around each carrier's neck. The
carriers move facing forward.
8. The chair: two carriers facing each other hold hands, left with right, grasping at the phalanges, and place their free arm
on each other's shoulders. The carried person sits on the arms and the carriers move sideways. This method allows to
carry over a long distance a person badly injured, unconscious or dead.
9. The double stretcher: four carriers in a square hold hands two by two at the phalanges or the wrists. The carried person lies down on this sort of bed, a fifth carrier behind may hold his head and a sixth one in front may hold his legs. This method works in any circumstance, provided there are enough carriers available.

Title: Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
Post by: Gregg HIPK on October 08, 2009, 08:16:11 PM
7. Throwing
Throwing consists in projecting an object of any shape or size either to a given distance or toward a given target. This exercise has many uses, for instance when defending oneself by throwing an object, helping someone in the water by throwing a life buoy or a rope, reaching a high place by throwing a grapple, giving a tool to someone you cannot reach, etc.
Throwing exercises act on most of the muscular system, particularly on the arms and the obliques.
They improve coordination, both for the power and the accuracy of the throw, and develop a good eye and a steady hand. They complement well lifting exercises, without any of the dangers of these previous exercises.
Throwing exercises are both educational and applied, and can be performed at any age, provided that the weight of the objects is limited for children. They must be done on both sides, to develop symmetry on the musculature and ambidextery.

Throwing light objects
1. Throwing by swinging of the arm: hold the object in the right hand, arm straight along the body. Split the legs front and
back, the right leg backward and carrying the weight of the body. Swing the arm back and forth, releasing the object when
the arm goes from back to front, while shifting your weight from the back to the front leg, extending the back leg fully and
possibly raising the foot. This method is used commonly in the game of Bocce ball.
2. Throwing by extending the arm: hold the object in the right hand, split legs front and back, weight on the back leg. Bring
the arm flexed toward the back, with a slight torsion of the body to the right. Extend suddenly the arm forward to release the
object, while bringing the weight of the body on the front leg and twisting the body toward the left. The arm follows a semicircular
trajectory, horizontal, slanted or vertical. This method is used to throw a small rock, a ball or a light object at a great
3. Throwing by torsion of the body: the difference with the previous method is that the object leaves the hand like in a
slingshot. The movement of the entire body produces the throw, not the arm alone which remains straight. Split the legs front
and back, bringing the weight on the back leg. Swing the extended arm front to back horizontally, twisting the torso in the
same direction. Release the object when the arm comes back to the front, with a vigorous torsion of the body to the left and a shift of the weight on the front leg. This method is used to throw ropes and life buoys. It is also used in the classical throw of the disc […].

Throwing heavy or large objects
1. Throwing from the shoulder without moving the feet: hold the object in the right hand, split the legs to bring the right foot back. Bring the right hand to the right shoulder, behind the head, arm bent. Bend the body backward, bringing the weight on the right leg, flexing. Bend immediately forward, shifting the weight onto the front leg and extending the right arm to release the object. The throw is done from the motion of the entire body, not just the arm.
2. Throwing from the shoulder with a step: with the object in the right hand next to the shoulder, step back to bring the weight on the flexed right leg as above. Shuffle both feet forward, keeping the weight on the right leg, and throw the object as previously using the momentum gained in the shuffle.
3. Two-handed throw from the shoulder: bring the object to the shoulder and throw it as previously, but using two hands to
carry the object.
4. Two-handed throw by swinging: take a wider stance, bend down to grasp the object, legs flexed. Swing the object back
and forth between the legs, then release it forward while straightening the body and extending the legs.
5. Two-handed throw by side swinging: stand to face a direction perpendicular to the direction of the throw. Take a wide stance, bend to grasp the object, and swing it side to side, along the throwing direction. Release the object while bringing your weight on the throwing side.

Juggling exercises
The throwing exercises above are complemented by juggling with all sorts of objects. The following exercises can be done in multiple ways: with light objects, heavy objects, without moving, while moving forward, backward or to the side, throwing higher and higher or faster and faster, using only the arms instead of the whole body to throw, keeping the hands always above or below the shoulders,
flexing the legs to throw and catch, flexing the torso forward or to the side to catch and extending it to throw..
Juggling exercises develop dexterity, a good eye and a steady hand. With heavier objects they have an intense effect on the strengthening of the arms, forearms and core muscles. The main juggling exercises are the following:
1. Throwing and catching an object with two hands.
2. Throwing an object with the right hand and catching it with the left. With a heavy object, bending the torso to the side and
catching with the arm fully extended is a great exercise to strengthen obliques, pectorals, and forearms.
3. Throwing and catching an object with one hand.
4. Throwing an object to a friend with both hands. If the object is light enough, the two persons can face each other, if the object is too heavy they must face the same direction and throw sideways. That way, if the object is not caught it will fall to the ground without
hitting the receiver.
5. Throwing and object to a friend and catching it with one hand.
Title: Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
Post by: Mazavam on October 28, 2010, 04:58:44 PM
Hi here is a translation for this book with the pic's:
Title: Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
Post by: Gregg HIPK on October 29, 2010, 10:16:18 AM
Yes, that's the final translation Pilou [mostly] and I did. I'm glad to see it's getting spread around.