Author Topic: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"  (Read 26032 times)

Offline Gregg HIPK

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Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
« on: July 09, 2009, 04:26:23 PM »
April 2009: After APK announced that the Practical Guide was available on Google, I started translating it for HIpk. I wrote to Muse, but she was insanely busy, and not able to work on it until the summer.

I tried to find other people who could translate, but didn't hook up with Pilou. Pilou ended up doing a great translation - much better than mine. You can find it at

I'll include the parts I translated that Pilou didn't, plus some of the discussion we had on the HIpk board

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Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
« Reply #1 on: July 09, 2009, 04:28:19 PM »
MN, Methode Naturelle, Natural Method, MovNat, etc. => Going Natural => Topic started by: Gregg on April 14, 2009, 11:54:38 AM

Title: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
Post by: Gregg on April 14, 2009, 11:54:38 AM,M1

Google books has a copy of Georges Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education". It's in French... so I can read it a little. By cutting and pasting into Google translate, you'll get a fast and dirty idea of it...

I already see that this is an earlier version of MN: It only has 8 of the 10 basics: "walking, running, jumping, swimming, climb, the lift, the  launch [throwing?], the defense by the natural means;" leaving out quad movement and balance...

Also, google translate is imperfect. "11 ne faudrait cependant pas s'imaginer que les exercices qui font partie de notre méthode sont absolument nouveaux." was translated "11 should, however, to imagine that the exercises that are part of our method are absolutely new." So "IL" instead of "11" and they left out one very important word... --> "He should NOT imagine..."

I'm not going to read it today. I've heard it's a pretty long, involved book. 500 pages or so. Oog.

Title: Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
Post by: Shiloh on April 14, 2009, 12:29:19 PM
Very interesting find G, now I wish someone could translate.  Argh

Its like getting a nice car without the keys.  lol

Title: Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
Post by: Gregg on April 14, 2009, 02:01:07 PM

It's Google translate, so it's a bit off... Sometimes the scanner read letters as numbers, or numbers as letters, or forgot a punctuation that changes meaning completely. If something doesn't make sense, keep reading. Hopefully it will make more sense in context.

Title: Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
Post by: Sala "MonsieurMonkey" on April 14, 2009, 03:51:58 PM
ill read it when i have the time to copy/paste everything haha
i dislike it when translaters are off, it just screws things up totally sometimes

Title: Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
Post by: Gregg on April 14, 2009, 04:51:44 PM
Follow the DRIVE AWAY link in previous message. It's 80% understandable. I read the first 40 pages then skimmed the original book to page 535. Some scanned pages are severely screwed up :(

Here is the basic adult >18 years old
[This was really messed up in the translation - there's a scaled rating/ measurement system? It's scattered later in the book. Not organized. ]

high jump no dash = 0.8 m
high jump with dash = 1 m
long jump no dash = 2 m
long jump with dash = 3 m
rope climb without help of legs = 5 m

run 100 m = 16 sec
run 500 m = 1:40
run 1500 m = 6 minutes

Lift with 2 hands a rock or weight of 40 kgs 1 time
Throw a weight of 7.25 kgs 5 m

Swim 100 m = 3 min
Swim: diving underwater = 10 sec

20 km in 4 hours [flat terrain with no load]

Title: Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
Post by: Shiloh on April 15, 2009, 12:22:05 AM
Thanks G.  At least we know the different areas he tested in. Cool.  ;)

Title: Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
Post by: Gregg on April 15, 2009, 11:46:54 AM
The book has an amazing amount of pictures for 1916. I wonder how they managed to publish something like this in the middle of World War I ?!?! Maybe he was hoping to use it as a training tool?

Here's how to swim with your rifle. Here are different ways to rescue a fallen soldier.
Run on top of a 4m [at least] wall to overcome vertigo. Ropes. Walls.

Time to break out my metric tape measure...

Title: Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
Post by: Ozzi on April 15, 2009, 04:29:12 PM
Funny you mentioned that today.

I had the guys at the class do a lil fear battling by walking on a wall which ground went from 3 feet to the stair area where the stairs went down and the drop was about 10ft. Not quite 4mts though.

Title: Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
Post by: Shiloh on April 16, 2009, 01:34:41 AM
Something I should maybe start?

I have vertigo.   I've gotten more confident on higher structures since starting PK, but still get the physical diziness while looking down, then lose equlibrium right after.  With PK its helped me focus on whats ahead instead of my fear of falling.

I've never tried running on a high wall yet.  Highest running was 3' lol.  So goal is 13'.  ;)

Just got thru lookin at the Pictures.  Amazing G.  I really wanna know translation now. hehe

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Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
« Reply #2 on: July 09, 2009, 04:34:12 PM »
Sweet, no matter how appalled they may be, we will be very greatful.  It might not be the cleanest translation like you said, but we like getting dirty dont we. lol.

I saw some of the book pictures Erwan posted on MovNat, I liked the "course" idea.   I made a city course here in Wailuku.  My goal is to be able to sprint the whole thing in good time.  Im still walking. lol.   I can keep adding things once it starts feeling more natural.   Its pretty cool to  map and practice a few different escape routes too.

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Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
« Reply #3 on: July 09, 2009, 04:39:54 PM »
Oh shoots!

Sorry APK people... I have my posts at HIpk in "Show most recent first" so the sections got out of order. I'll try to get it in right order later this afternoon.

Offline Ozzi

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Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
« Reply #4 on: July 09, 2009, 04:45:31 PM »
Awesome job, Gregg. Thanks so much.
"Be the change you want to see in the world"

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Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
« Reply #5 on: July 09, 2009, 05:16:54 PM »
FOREWORD [The stripped down parkour version]

Goal: Teach physical development through the most effective, fastest and simplest way.

This isn’t theoretical. It’s been tested over 5 years. The methods are not new: Flexing and extending the limbs and trunk, running, jumping, swimming and so on.

Our approach includes:

1: Eight essential utilities: walking, running, jumping, swimming, climbing, lifting, throwing, and unarmed combat.

2: Preparatory: Exercises with good effects on the different parts of the body: Simple and combined movements of the arms, legs, and trunk, allowed by the normal play of joints, suspensions, supports, balances, jitter, respiratory movements;

3: Complementary: Games, sports of all kinds, and the most common manual labor.

The eight utilities don’t have the same importance. It is evident that the exercises which develop resistance force by augmenting the power of the heart and lungs are the most useful and practical. Running is the primary exercise in our system.
   Elementary education exercises develop the body, but don’t misunderstand or exaggerate their value. They produce many of the effects of the utilities, but are insufficient by themselves to permit full physical development.
   You don’t get the coordination needed to practically apply by analyzing muscles and organs.
   Games, sports, and manual labor complete the method and provide the means to learn all the branches of physical activity.
--- --- ---
   Our method of work is very simple and practical. It is appropriate for everyone. It is applicable everywhere: it doesn’t require special installations. It depends more on the manner in which it is taken, the wise use of the resources, location and terrain we have.

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Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
« Reply #6 on: July 09, 2009, 05:19:22 PM »
[Continuing forward with the foreword]

   Training for the resistance to cold and to weather… This training is done naturally by working topless as often as possible, and taking air baths in all seasons. The air bath is a powerful means of hardening at the same time maintaining health. After the excellent results we’ve seen, we can’t recommend it too much.
   In summary, our method is essentially practical, and tends to form strong beings capable of executing all the utility exercises and possessing a minimum degree of aptitude in relation to their age and constitution. We define this minimum degree in a precise fashion.

--- --- ---

   Determining physical aptitude and recording the results.
   It’s indispensable to know at any time a subject and to have a clear idea of his physical power or absolute general force.
   We created a form to register the results of twelve classic tests, listed according to a determined level of aptitude. The twelve tests are combined so that together we can determine in a sufficiently precise fashion, and evaluate numerically, the general physical worth or degree of physical aptitude of a particular subject.
   If one considers that the principle elements of physical power, or absolute general force are: resistance force, muscular strength itself, the skill and also the nervous and moral energy, it is very evident that such a determination or evaluation, presented in numeric form, is a difficult problem to solve.
   We don’t claim to have the solution, nor the defining formula to evaluate the power of the human machine. But this form gives a fairly accurate measure of physical aptitude.
   Only long experience permits the modification or completion of this form and awards the coefficients of each test.
   Examining the tests of the form shows that:
   1st The resistance force is evaluated by five tests: 100 m run [speed], 500 m run [speed and endurance], 1500 m run [endurance];

Google messed up the scan - next page should talk about the tests, but it's the Title Page again.

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Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
« Reply #7 on: July 09, 2009, 05:20:33 PM »
!!! Mahalo nui loa to BionicGrape for scanning the missing pages for me.

the 100 meter swim [speed and endurance]; diving under the water [respiratory power]. Likewise, executing them in the same day, as demanded by the series of twelve tests, also makes the subject’s force of resistance intervene;
2- Muscular strength is represented by lifting weight with two hands, throwing the weight, and climbing the smooth rope.
3 – Skill, agility, flexibility, the coordination of movements are given by the four types of jumps: standing high jump, running high jump, standing long jump, and running long jump, and equally by the running and swimming.
4 – The energy qualities are found in the execution of the series of the twelve tests without failure, on the contrary, by giving each of them maximum effort.
The choice of tests is made to give the resistance force and agility priority over muscular strength.
Otherwise said, to the equality of muscular strength, the more resistant and the more agile of the two subjects submitted to the tests obtains a superior total number of points. This is logical and corresponds to our definition of a strong and complete man; strength lives more in the heart and lungs than in the muscles.
  If one has still not perfected that formula of physical power, the card-type is, in all cases, a very practical way to control and observe the results. It permits the easy following of progress, to direct the work in the conventional sense, to uncover all the weak points of the education. Each subject can not chase his physical education without periodically submitting to the twelve classic tests which permit deduction of the value of his general physical state and the importance of his progress. The card-type is at the same time the control instrument of the work accomplished and the device to register the results obtained. It is the major guide of the instructor and the student.

In short, the card-type presents the following advantages:
1 – It marks the physical aptitude, that which has for immediate consequence takes the results and
the palpable progress, essential conditions for that one instruction is interested.
2 – It clearly states the qualities which characterize a strong and complete man, and gives a fair idea  of that which makes up strength. It removes the all prejudiced point of view. It has at the same time a practical signification. The subject who succeeds at the series of twelve tests proves at the same time his aptitudes in the most important natural exercises: He can run (and walk), jump, swim, climb, lift and throw.
3 – It provides for each test, the aptitude levels which give the precious indications to students and masters. The figures indicated by the notation of performances are established for the average of the weakest subjects;
4 – It shows, by age, the minimum degree of aptitude to be possessed to not be a physical nothing.
5 – It obliges to neglect nothing in the research of the qualities which make up physical development; It prevents all absolute specialization.

Having proposed this, one is all surprised to see the champion specialists of all kinds put on notice to prove their skills through the implementation of the twelve tests, present a general physical value very low, even more often lower than subjects who only have average skills in all. Why be a champion jumper or a special team member in any game, if you can not climb or swim?

   6 We differentiate the subjects by giving them an idea of their value, not by a simple sentimental appraisal as is done in almost all gymnastics competitions or examinations, but by executing a series of measurable tests.
   When several subjects receive equal ratings, from a general physical value, then we use the defense exercises, boxing and wrestling, to differentiate them. In a word, with equal general physical values, the stronger is the winner in the defense exercises.

   7° It immediately creates emulation by clearly indicating the concrete goal to achieve, in giving everyone the measure of their value and finally proving their low uselessness, which excites their self-esteem.
--- --- ---

   Our method is designed and developed in such a way that with the concepts contained in the book, and without possessing superior physical skills or special knowledge, it is perfectly possible to teach or to conduct exercises in a very rational manner.
   The role of the educator is certainly very delicate: It can not just be filled by men prepared for the job with a profound knowledge of anatomy, physiology, hygiene, and the science of the mechanics of movement. They must be, in addition, skillful and experienced practitioners. This category of specialists is still extremely rare.
   It is evidently necessary to take education in an enlightened direction, to make progress and help form professors and instructors. But under this pretext that these are the type of educators we need, we should not believe that physical education presents insurmountable difficulties and remains the exclusive domain of specialists. We argue, however, that those who have care of souls: parents, teachers, professors, officers, directors of companies and so forth., may well, with our book, enable them to conduct the physical exercises.
   It is sufficient that they want to take the trouble to penetrate to the bottom of the spirit of the method and that they have the firm determination to exercise themselves. They will soon see that there is no need to be an exceptional subject for walking, running, jumping, swimming, etc. to correctly execute most of the exercises.
   They must also be persuaded that with the work first, with care and precautions following, it is possible to achieve excellent results. There is no example of subjects who, having worked with perseverance during the required time, did not come to perfection, if not completely, at least enough.
« Last Edit: September 02, 2009, 02:53:52 PM by Gregg »

Offline Gregg HIPK

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Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
« Reply #8 on: July 09, 2009, 05:21:16 PM »
The end of the foreword

--- --- ---
   Physical education starts at a young age and is pursued up to the age of man. When perfection is attained one does not rest, but trains in shape and conserves health by proper hygiene and a sufficient dose of exercise.

   There is interest to begin methodical physical education as soon as possible, because children who engage in a good time of physical exercise always become robust men. However, even up to an advanced age, one may make physical re-education with success, but taking the precautions the physician may indicate. The results are obviously less good, but they are no less significant.

   All the genres of indispensable utility exercises may be practiced by children, as long as the work dose is intelligently regulated and a very gentle progression is consciously observed during the execution and especially during the apprenticeship. An exercise, whatever it is, is not violent if we chose to make it so.

   We must not show too much fear about  practicing the utility exercises by young children.
   Indeed, the child has to be put in measure to solve all the circumstances his age will permit. He may need to escape from danger, to bring aid to his one of his comrades, defend himself against an aggressor his age, etc. Very often he researches, by instinct, the exercises with violent reputations.

   Although the Practical Guide to Physical Education is specially written for male subjects, most of the exercises in this book, particularly the basic educational exercises, can be practiced by girls and women.

   Understand that the subjects for training in the principles exposed by us should not have infirmities or serious hereditary defects (hernias, heart problems, etc.). In the letter case, doctors should always be consulted and asked what to do.
--- --- ---

   Finally, we must add that a complete physical education is not limited solely to the teaching and practice of physical exercises of all kinds in our book.
It also includes:
The rules of hygiene and maintenance in shape and good health;
The teaching of physical duties, constituting what might be called "natural morality".
All these parts of education, important because of their influence over the entire existence, should be taught by medical personnel.

   Complete physical education includes the development of moral or manly qualities which are truly of men. For not too much of our book, we have indicated these qualities without examining in detail the best ways to acquire them. But we wish to be very precise on this subject: Moral or manly education is inseparable from the purely physical education.  The school of physical exercises should be at the same time the school of energy, commitment, courage, composure and daring. The teacher must be an example of these qualities; he must struggle against laziness, softness, inaction and must make born in all a love of work and a healthy competitiveness.

   Seek to be strong not only physically but morally. Here is the great duty of man to himself, to his family, his homeland and to humanity. Only the strong will return useful in difficult circumstances of life, dangers, the evils of all kinds, wars, etc.
   When you are in normal physical condition, there is no reason, no excuse to stay feeble since reasoned and methodical work permit you to become strong.

   There is, as noted above, an individual and social duty to fill. We would be very happy if we are able to help this be accomplished in our readers.

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Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
« Reply #9 on: July 09, 2009, 05:23:17 PM »
Thank you G.  That was some very helpful information that you uncovered again. ;)

I like what he says about training to withstand cold and weather.

and of course:

 "Seek to be strong not only physically but morally. Here is the great duty of man to himself, to his family, his homeland and to humanity. Only the strong will return useful in difficult circumstances of life, dangers, the evils of all kinds, wars, etc."

--- --- ---
Chapter 1
Definition – bases – goal – Utility of the method in physical education – The natural education and the natural method.

1. Activity is a law of nature.
All living being, obeying the natural need for activity that is in him, comes to a complete physical development by the simple use of his organs of locomotion, its ways of work and defense.
The man in the state of nature, wild for example, forced to lead an active life to support himself, realizes the full physical development by doing only the useful and natural exercises: walking, running, jumping, climbing, lifting, throwing, swimming, defense, etc. and delivers the most common menial labor.

2. Development and achievement is generally adapted to the conditions and needs of the environment in which the individual is forced to move.
The value of this development varies depending on the original skills of the individual, his temperament more or less active, his constitution more or less strong, the climate of the place where he lives, and the challenges he encounters to provide for his needs or to ensure his safety.
3. In the civilized countries, the social obligations, conventions and prejudices which move man away from the natural life outdoors and often prevent the exercise of his activity. His physical development is halted, or even arrested by these obligations or conventions.
Those who are civilized, who daily have the leisure to take and really take a dose of sufficient exercise, in relation to their constitution, can arrive, without any method, to their complete development by simple practice of natural exercises or their derivatives and by the completion of the utility exercises or the most common manual labor. In this they imitate men living in the state of nature, but with the difference that they are pleased by what other people do out of necessity.

4. These subjects are obviously the exception. In general the prejudices, the habits of modern life are such that, in childhood or youth, rather restrained activity is encouraged. On the other hand, the easy existence and comfort encourage physical laziness.
However, we can cite examples of subjects who acquired without method almost complete development. But it should be noted first that these subjects had generally excellent natural dispositions, then that the means employed by them to achieve such a result were mostly games and sports, thus involving walking, running, jumping, swimming, climbing, ie the natural exercises and their derivatives.

5. If, despite its difficulties he encounters, the inhabitant of the civilized country wants, while remaining faithful to the conventions and social obligations, reach a complete physical development, he must be subject to two main requirements:
   1 – Devote daily to the culture of the body enough time;
   2 – Settle the better spending of the time to do nothing useless.
The ideal is to arrive at producing, within the given time or in the minimum time, without harming the organism, a dose of activity roughly equal to that which would be a full day of outdoor life in the state of nature.

« Last Edit: August 01, 2009, 04:45:56 PM by Gregg »

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Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
« Reply #10 on: July 09, 2009, 05:24:50 PM »
6. The culture of body made in a steady, continuous and progressive manner is physical education. It can be wholly and solely by the natural exercises, without order or method, as has Heu among uncivilized peoples; it is the natural education. In this case, the physical development is acquired haphazard and its final value is highly uncertain. For example, there are poorly developed wild populations.
   Methodical or rational education is quite different. The method, in effect, provides accuracy in the work, it avoids guesswork, rejects everything that is unnecessary and monitors results. It allows you to walk with confidence towards the goal of full physical development.
From there its benefits, especially when the time devoted to the cultivation of the body is limited, and if one considers, on the other hand, the need to combat in a large number of individuals with hereditary defects.

7. Choose exercises according to the knowledge of their effects on the body, classify and regulate their dose is the method in education.
   The uncivilized subject perfected himself, first by imitation, then by using his personal experience; it is a very instinctive action.

   The method, by contrast, helps from the outset the civilized subject by showing him the best principles to follow. It avoids a large number of unsuccessful tests or dangerous personal experiences. It would allow and save time. In addition, it must be noted that the effects of some natural exercises or certain work that is impossible to practice in some cases, may be obtained artificially by well-determined movements.
But the exercises of this kind can never, alone, replace the natural exercises in the open air or have the same value. They are a last resort.

   8. The methodical education methods proposed will produce in the human machine maximum performance or, more simply, it seeks to make strong beings.

   Practically, this means a great health, an energetic character, resistance to fatigue and skills sufficient for the exercises and natural utility exercises. These exercises are eight distinct groups, which are: walking, running, jumping, swimming, climbing, lifting, throwing, and the natural defense (by boxing and wrestling).

   Just think for a moment to understand that these eight sets of exercises are all useful to varying degrees throughout the course of life. Besides them there are only exercises such as fencing, riding, rowing, ... which are of secondary utility or limited to certain categories of people; or games, sports, fancy exercises or acrobatics; but none among them is essential for all individuals, irrespective of profession or class.

   There is, therefore, a general type of rational method or system of human development, which is one that is based on progressive training at work and the consistent practice of the natural and utility exercises.
   We can call it the natural method.

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Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
« Reply #11 on: July 14, 2009, 04:26:09 PM »

The educational part and the application part. — Their essential difference — Exercises which make up each of the two parts.

9. Any method of physical education includes:
1. An educational part whose main role is to produce well-determined effects on the body. In particular:
1st Mechanically promote the expansion of the rib cage and give it mobility.
2nd Increase breathing capacity;
3rd Specially strengthen the abdominal muscles
4th Normally develop the whole muscular system:
5th Correct the faults and bad habits: Arched back, drooping shoulders, exaggerated spine curvature;
6th Learn the elements and the main ways to do natural and utility exercises: Walk, run, jump, swim, climb, lift burdens, throw objects, and defense.

 10. II. An application part whose primary role is:
1st  To develop skills at the highest level by wisely using the strength and ability acquired through the practice of the educational exercises.
2nd To give the practical results.
3rd To introduce the means to get by in life.

11. Both parts of the method, having very different roles, are not clearly separated in practice. There is no fixed term for the teaching of the educational component alone. Both enter into effect; education and enforcement can work well together, even in children.
It depends on the constitution, skills, level of training, more or less rapid progress to educate the subject.

12. The educational part can and should be prolonged for a long time for the weak, clumsy, etc.; for those strong, bold, clever and resilient by nature, it is almost useless.
Finally, some subjects don’t need to have the educational part concerning the determined exercises and not at all for others.
The educator must assess the status and value of his subject, to make sure it has all the elements before further education, not to go too fast or march in place; finally do not hesitate to take a step backwards in the educational part.

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Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
« Reply #12 on: July 15, 2009, 01:55:00 PM »
13. The educational part includes the following exercises:

  1 The basic classic movements of arms, legs and trunk: elevations, flexions and extensions, and in general all movement allowed by the normal play of the joints.
These movements are made, either hands free or with portable devices, such as small dumbbells, bars, clubs, extensor elastic, etc.
  2 The simple suspensions by the hands, including the horizontal progressions, arms extended or flexed, legs raised or lowered.
The suspensions are made on all kinds of items where the hands can find a grip.
  3 Supports only on the hands or both hands and points of the feet, arms extended or bent.
Supports are done on all kinds of items where the hands can be put down without the legs touching the ground or on the ground even with the help of the feet.
  4 Balance movements on one leg.
  5 Hopping on one or both feet on the spot or moving forward.
  6 The respiratory movements.
  7 The natural locomotion exercises: walking, running, jumping.
Mechanical education of these normal gaits and respiratory education during their execution.
  8 The indispensable utility exercises: swimming, climbing and scaling, lifting burdens, throwing objects, defense.

Learn the best ways of implementing these different exercises.

14. The application part includes:

  1 The natural exercises: walking, running, jumping, performed in increasingly tough conditions:
Longer and faster walks and runs, with all sorts of terrain, flat or hilly;
Jumps and passages of actual barriers.
  2 The essential utility exercises: swimming, climbing and scaling, lifting burdens, throwing objects, defense, also performed under more difficult conditions more difficult or as close as possible to cases that may arise in reality ie:
Practice swimming, being fully clothed; River crossings; Climbing of all kinds; Boxing; Wrestling, etc.
  3 Rescue exercises:
Rescue in the water; Use all kinds of devices or objects to climb; Transporting wounded, etc.
  4 Practice games and all sports starting with the most useful after the indispensible utility exercises. Finally, the most common manual labor.

Sports not indispensable to the utilitarian point of view are not strictly speaking part of a method of physical education. They simply complete a very effective way. It is evident that one can not think to introduce into a method and teach on a regular basis a number of exercises as great as that of sports currently practiced. The taste of the interested parties or their special situation must mainly dictate the choice.

15. In short, any method of physical education practice includes the following exercises:

  1 The basic learning exercises, ie the basic classic movements of the arms, legs and trunk, suspensions, supports, balances, hops and respiratory movements;
  2 The natural exercises and essential utility exercises forming eight groups: walking, running, jumping, swimming, climbing, lifting, throwing, defense;
  3 All games and sports useful or fantasy, in general, and the most common manual labor.

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Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
« Reply #13 on: July 16, 2009, 06:24:06 PM »

General rules on the way to work. —What a meeting or lesson of rational work should be. — Choice, order and relative duration of the different exercises constituting a meeting or lesson.

16. The combination of different exercises makes up the method of education, their classification, their order of execution, the relative time devoted to them, the expense of work required, this is the way to work.
In physical education, as in all other matters, the results depend not only on the amount of work but, for the most part, the method of work.

17. It is not possible to define absolutely clearly and precisely what should be the method of work; one can hardly state the guidelines and general principles.
  Too many elements come into account to let everything be set in advance. Age, health of subjects, the job they perform or they are preparing, the circumstances of time or place are all factors that require changing the way to work.
  Some details are left to the discretion of the master or the performer. It is an art to train how to teach and nothing can replace the value and experience of the master, or the enthusiasm and the care taken by the performer.

18. Physical work is usually set by meetings of a fixed period during which one performs a number of exercises.
  The meeting is called lesson when the work is set and led by a teacher or an instructor.

19. Giving or conducting a meeting of rational work or a correct lesson is not a juxtaposition, a gathering of exercises which are executed at random without order or method. It is a logical suite of varied and graduated exercises which interest the different parts of the body according to their relative psysiological importance and which have a practical utility.

20. The order of relative physiological importance of the different parts of the body is:
1° Lungs and heart;
2° Muscles that set the shoulder back, raise the ribs and straighten the curvature of the spine (trapezius, rhomboid and back);
3° Abdominal Muscles;
4° Muscles of the members.

21. The exercises that have practical use are: walking, running, jumping, swimming, climbing, lifting, throwing and defense.
The most important of all is running, both from the practical (development of ability to move fast or long) and physiological point of view (intense development of the lungs and heart, putting in action almost the complete muscular system). It is the basic or fundamental exercise of physical education by the natural method.

22. A work meeting or a lesson is considered complete when the execution of the various exercises that comprise it ultimately produce the following effects: hygienic, aesthetic and utilitarian.
  The hygienic effect is produced, especially by exercises that activate the respiration and circulation, and, in general, the activity during the meeting or lesson.
  The aesthetic effect is produced by the exercises that develop the muscular system and also by those who address the bad attitudes of the shoulder, raise the ribs and get rid of the abnormal curvature of the spine.
  Finally, the utility effect is the result of the execution of doing the practical utility exercises: walking, running, jumping, swimming, climbing, lifting, throwing and defense.

23. As a general rule a complete meeting or lesson is a summary or it must present the plan of all the materials that contribute to physical development.

Practically, the ideal and complete meeting consists of all possible types of exercises:
1° Basic educational exercises: Elementary movements of legs, arms and trunk, suspensions, support, balance, hopping, respiratory movements;
2° Natural and useful exercises: walking, running, jumping, swimming, climbing, lifting, throwing, defense.

24. A meeting should always be as complete as possible.
If it is not possible to do otherwise, do the minimum as follows:
1° “Supple” the members and trunk;
2° Develop or keep fit the muscular system, especially the abdominal and back muscles;
3° Suspensions and supports;
4° Running;
5° Jumping;
6° Breathing.

25. Even in the most unfavorable situations: lack of time, space, material, etc., a meeting or lesson never consists of exercises which cover only part of the body. For example, a meeting of only suspension exercises would only work the upper trunk.
  Only swimming, which brings together all the effects of the complete meeting, is an exception to the rule.
On the other hand, big walks, long distance runs, and some games may also constitute meetings with a sufficiently complete value, in some cases.

26. The order in which you run the exercises that make up the complete meeting is not random; it is based on the expenditure of work or, if preferred, on the violence of successive efforts demanded of the body.
  The meeting always begins with moderate exercises which train the body, it then goes through exercises that require an increasing expenditure of effort and finally it ends with exercises to restore calm in the body.
  Fatigue resulting from the lesson must come from the general work of the whole body, not only the work of one part.

27. There is not an absolute order; It all depends on the importance that we decide to give different exercises, even beyond their violence.
  Some, such as the basic movements of the legs, arms and trunk only produce a low outlay of work regardless of the energy to do them. Their place is at the start of the meeting, or in the course of the meeting as derivatives, to provide a rest after more violent drills.
  Others, however, such as skipping, racing, jumping, etc. put the important parts of the body into action. Their logical place is therefore after less violent exercises when the "organic machine" is sufficiently "heated".

The general rule of work is as follows: gradually increase the effort to produce and stop without abruptness.

28. The total duration of a meeting or lesson varies depending on circumstances.
  In principle, working daily for an hour is sufficient for the education of the body, if this time is used wisely.

29. The relative duration to give different exercises to each other is necessarily very variable. It depends:
On the total duration of the "lesson";
On the violence of the exercises or the fatigue caused to the performers;
On the importance that you want to give some exercises to produce a particular effect.

30. A meeting or lesson, complete or not, must truly represent a sustained and continuous work.
The rest part in the course of the meeting should be kept to an essential minimum.
  In a perfectly conducted meeting, the sequence of exercises is set so that the rest period is reduced to a few seconds. Often, no rest is required. Only the change from one exercise to another must get the body the rest and relaxation essential to continue the work.

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Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
« Reply #14 on: July 19, 2009, 09:05:54 PM »
Group of exercises in a series. — Goal or common effects for each series. — Logical order of execution of various exercises.

31. To satisfy the conditions which must be fulfilled in a meeting of rational work [see the previous chapter], the exercises which make up the method are grouped in series.
The exercises of the same series have nearly identical effects on the body or meet the same goal.
There are 7 series. Their methodical order makes up the model plan of the complete meeting or lesson.

32. The following table shows which exercises are in each series as well as their goal or their common effects.

SERIES 1: Exercises:
1. Walks of all sorts.
2. Posture correcting movements
3. Movements to increase flexibility in the arms, legs, and trunk

  Goal: Correct posture and train the body for general flexibility [aesthetic effect].

SERIES 2: Exercises:
1. Basic exercises of the legs and arms, simple or combined, hands free or with equipment.
2. Lifting exercises.
3. Throwing exercises.
4. Defense exercises: boxing and wrestling.

  Goal: General development and symmetry of all the parts of the body. Increase flexibility in the joints of the members [aesthetic effect]. Get dexterity and perfect the aptitudes for defence, lifting and throwing [utility effect].

SERIES 3: Exercises
1. Suspensions
2. Supports
3. Climbing and scaling of all sorts
4. Balancing or exercises to combat vertigo.

  Goal: Particularly develop the muscles of the upper trunk, the abdomen and the upper members [aesthetic effect]. Sense of balance, ability in all sorts of climbing [utility effect].

SERIES 4: Exercises
1. Hopping
2. Speed runs
3. Endurance runs of small distances.

  Goal: Intense action on the large body functions: breathing and circulation [hygeienic effect]. Improvement of the normal paces and training to work.

SERIES 5: Exercises
Special trunk exercises

Goal:  Particular development of the back and abdominal muscles [aesthetic effect].

SERIES 6: Exercises
1. Jumps of all sorts: with and without momentum, with support of the hands, with fixed or mobile obstacles.
2. Speed or endurance runs [as in Series 4].
3. Swimming
4. Games of all sorts, involving running, jumping, wresting, swimming, etc.

  Goal: Same effects as the 4th Series, but with more intensity. All the exercises of this series produce the hygienic, aesthetic and utility effects at the same time.

SERIES 7: Exercises
1. Breathing exercises
2. Walks

Goal: Re-establish order in breathing and circulation. Learn how to breathe.

33. The different movements for a work meeting take place either walking or running.
Walking is preferred:
1° At the beginning of the meeting to set up or accompany the posture corrective movements;
2° In the course of the work, to begin or finish the speed or endurance runs or any other violent exercise and also to accompany the arm movements;
3° Finally, immediately after the breathing exercises or even during their execution.

34. Walking is used in two ways:
1° As a utility exercise for movement, exercise or training;
2° As a derivative exercise to prepare the body for work or restore calm after violent exercise.
In the latter case, preferably walk on the points of the feet.

35. Examination of the model plan shows that the establishment of this plan is consistent with the definition given in the previous chapter, of the complete meeting of rational work. In effect:

1° The different sets of exercises can produce the three essential effects: hygienic, aesthetic and utilitarian;
2° The order adopted for the series is the one that best suits them. This order is based on the principle of increasing efforts, and then decreasing. For example:
  The exercises in Series 1 prepare the body and stretch the members;
  On average, the exercises of Series 4 and 6 require greater efforts than those of Series 1, 2 and 3;
  Series 5 is purposely placed between two sets containing violent exercise (hopping, racing, jumping, etc.) because the exercises in this series require little work and give the body a needed rest, practically characterized by decreased pulse rate;
  Finally the Exercises of Series 7 are likely to restore order in breathing and circulation before resting. They are also done in the course of the meeting when the violence of an exercise makes them useful.

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Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
« Reply #15 on: July 20, 2009, 12:54:18 AM »


Type of exercises to be performed. — Complete and incomplete sessions. — Choice and order of the exercises.

36. Composing a complete session or lesson with the model plan means taking one or preferably several types of exercises in each set and executing them in the order of these series.
Ideally, a complete session or lesson must be made from all the exercises of the model plan. Practically, it comprises the successive execution of 12 following types of exercise:

1° Begin training by walking, taking correct posture and extending members and the trunk [SERIES 1]

2° Exercise the muscles of the arms and legs and work all the joints [SERIES 2]
3° Lift                                                                                     “
4° Throw                                                                                 “
5° Wrestle and box                                                                    “

6° Suspensions and supports [SERIES 3]
7° Climb and scale                      “

8° Hop and run [SERIES 4]

9° Exercising especially the back and abdomen muscles [SERIES 5]

10° Jumping                                 [SERIES 6]
11° Swim* (or run or play)                “

12° Breathe                                 [SERIES 7]

* The ideal is obviously to have a river or a pool close to where one exercises in order to do the swimming exercises.

37. The order of execution exercises in a series is not of secondary importance. The exercises of series 2 and 3 may be alternated, because they have roughly the same effect, or answer the same goal.
  In general, for the proper distribution of the work expended and reduction of rest to the minimum two successive exercises or movements should involve different parts of the body.

38. Each type of exercise of the model plan includes several kinds of exercises or movements grouped under the same name.
During a session of suspensions, jumps or trunk exercises, etc., this means doing one or more different suspensions, one or several kinds of jumps, one or more movements of the trunk, etc.. repeating the exercises or movements a certain number of times each.

39. If for any reason [lack of time, lack of location or material, to produce special effect, etc.], the session or lesson can not be complete, ie does not consist of all the kinds of exercises, there is still interest in selecting and classifying the exercises that are composed, according to the methodical order of the model plan.

  For example, a session of jumps and suspensions will be composed of the following:
Preliminary flexibility exercises and the start of training; Suspensions; Jumps; Breathing exercises.

  Suspensions are placed before the jumps, first because they are a less violent exercise and also because they are part of the 3rd series of the model plan, while jumps are classified in the 6th series.
  The preliminary exercises and breathing exercises, given their limited duration, may still be part of a session, even a very short one.

40. The choice of exercises making up a session depends on:
1° The age of the performers;
2° Their constitution or state of health;
3° Their degree of training;
4° The degree of difficulty reached in preceding sessions;
5° The specific result one wants to achieve;
6° Weaknesses that one wishes to strengthen or develop;
7° Climate conditions;
8° Atmospheric circumstances of the moment;
9° The land or equipment that you have, etc.
« Last Edit: July 28, 2009, 12:13:19 PM by Gregg »

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Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
« Reply #16 on: July 20, 2009, 02:58:23 PM »

How to compose a series of progressive sessions. — Variability of the program following the results. — General and specific training.

41. The regular, methodical and progressive work makes up training, ie the movement towards the ultimate goal of education: get the maximum performance from the human machine. The training must be daily to be effective.

42. The series of progressive training consists of daily sessions or lessons of increasing difficulty.
The difficulty results from the following elements:
1° Choice of increasingly difficult exercises or movements;
2° Total number of exercises and movements making up the session;
3° Relative importance of rest;
4° Total duration of the session.

43. A similar session may also be made more difficult without changing the exercises that comprise it:
1° By seeking more intense and more prolonged efforts;
2° By reducing the partial rests;
3° By increasing the rate or speed of movement;
4° By repeating the same kind of exercises more times in succession;
5° By working with more vigor and energy.

44. The establishment of a training program with sessions of increasing difficulty is the delicate part of the work method. The value of this program will depend on the final results.
  On one hand, it is important to not demand too much from the body to avoid overwork. To do this, it is sufficient to respect the rules of fatigue.
  On the other hand, it must work enough to avoid shuffling in place. If the program is well ordered, there must be progress or at least never have loss after each work session.

45. A training program is based on the immediate effects of certain exercises and the economic conditions of the working muscle.
  Any errors or inversion in the exercises can lead to loss of time, discouragement or unnecessary burnout.
  If the increase is well ordered, the subject naturally and without exaggerated effort reaches the more difficult exercises.
  The inability to perform an ordinary application exercise shows that some preliminary exercises were neglected or not repeated enough.
  For example, in the climbing exercises, to begin with the most difficult recoveries is a serious mistake and a technical error. Climbing smooth rope must precede and prepare this type of exercises. The rope acts on all the muscles working in the "climb". Initially, help from the legs permits training these muscles gradually, even in the weakest subjects.
  Similarly, the various application jumps must be carried out when the legs are sufficiently prepared and landings assured by doing classic ordinary jumps.
  Speed and energy grow naturally in the performance of lively relaxation exercises, etc. 


46. A training program demands to be reasonable. Its grand lines are always established in advance, but everything is modifiable after the circumstances.
The best is to specify the exercises to be executed and to fix the goal to achieve yearly, monthly, weekly, and daily.

47. A well-ordered program can submit to very important modifications, each time they are deemed necessary. It is a question of experience and of the dexterity of the part of that which has been established.
The observation of the results and the progress accomplished serves at the same time as a reference point and indicates to orient the program or direct it such and such way.

48. Do not confuse general training with particular training for certain types of exercises. Educating a physical subject consists of developing in a complete fashion, not to specialize in a single genre.
Specialization is not complete rational education; It can not make that one time the education achieve.

49. In other times, all who pursued general education, one can lay aside certain exercises with the intention to return back either at a more favorable time, or in a more proper place.
Certain exceptional subjects may occasionally engage in particular training for a short time, to condition how their general education would not suffer them.

50. The general training, after the progressive work meetings, is always a mix of games and sports of all sorts where the execution is not possible during the special time consecrated to body development.
It is an essential complement of the regular and daily meeting which permit direct application of the qualities aquired by the methodical work.

CHAPTER VII [I had previously done one page of this]

Usefulness of observing the results. – How to observe the results by periodic tests. – Measure of physical aptitude. – Physical aptitude insufficient or null, inferior, average, superior, and exceptional. – Minimal performances which characterize physical aptitude of the complete athlete. – Model of the individual card.

51. The periodic observation of the results is essential to have precise indications of the value of the work accomplished, and the efficiency of the method used.

52. This observation is effective for comparison. The difference in value of performances or exercises accomplished in two different times practically gives the value of the results acquired.

53. The general physical aptitude can be measured by a certain number of tests listed on a scale given and made to intervene, in group or separately, muscular strength, skill, and force of resistance. The tests needed to determine this measure of general physical aptitude should at least be composed of the following exercises:
1 – Jumps (give the measure of agility, flexibility, and the release of the lower members);
2 – Speed and endurance runs (organic resistance);
3 – Climbing a smooth rope (muscular strength of the upper trunk, arms and abdomen);
4 – Throwing a weight (dexterity, coordination of movements)
5 – Lifting a weight with two hands (general muscular strength);
6 – Swimming (muscular strength, force of resistance, dexterity and flexibility).

54. The more the number of tests is considerable, the more the measure of the physical aptitude is precise.
To mark this measure, the performances of each test are given in points after a scale established in the following fashion:
The performances correspond to number of points, zero indicates a minimum that every adult at least 18 years old of average health should reach to be considered “to get by”. It is essential that the practice of application exercises lets one attain the minimum as rapidly as possible.
The performances corresponding to 3 points characterize subjects developed and trained in a superior fashion.
The performances corresponding to 5 points characterize subjects with exceptional aptitudes or specialists who have practiced physical exercises for a long time.
Finally, by continuing the indicated scale, the performances of 12 to 15 points correspond approximately with records established by elite subjects, approaching the limits of human power.

55. To keep the measure of a subject’s aptitude and to follow his progress, one needs to make a card for him comprised of a certain number of varied tests and his score.
The card-type is made of 12 tests. However one may have a sufficiently exact indication of the aptitude for a number of tests much less.
The table on page 28 shows which of the 12 tests the card-type and the number of points attributed to each performance. *
* The system of the measurable tests and the model of the card-type that we have personally established and put in practice at the School of Marine Riflemen has been officially approved and made regulation of the Marines.

56. The aptitude value is given by the total number of points obtained in each test. The is listed at their just value, by points and hundredths of points.
One can give negative points for performances less than 0, or points higher than 5, whatever the case, by completing in the proper sense the gradation shown in each test.
The number of points is evidently an algebraic sum, since some performances are scored with negative points.
The model of the card-type is shown on page 29.

57. The physical aptitude is called:
1 – Insufficient or null, when the total number of points is less than 0;
2 – Inferior, when the total number of points is at least equal to 0;
3 – Average, when the total number of points is at least equal to 18;
4 – Superior, when the total number of points is at least equal to 36;
5 – Exceptional or athletic aptitude, when the total number of points is at least equal to 60.

58. To characterize the aptitude of the complete and perfect athlete, a high condition is needed.
By definition, a complete and perfect athlete excels in all the exercises; he possesses at least an exceptional aptitude in each of the classic tests of the card-type. By consequence the minimum number of 60 points is not attained by the accomplishment of a couple extraordinary performances which compensate for other very inferior ones.
The minimal performances which must be achieved are:
Standing high jump = 1.15 m
Running high jump = 1.40 m
Standing long jump = 2.50 m
Running long jump = 5.00 m
100 m run = 13 seconds
500 m run = 1:24
1500 m run = 5:05
Rope climb = 10 m
7.25 kg throw = 9 m
Lift 40 kg = 10 times
Swim 100 m = 2 minutes
Swim: dive under water = 60 seconds

59. The results observation procedure which consists of making the successive measures and the regular weigh-ins does not permit notice of the practical results aquired also clearly that the system of the tests indicated very high. The establishment of these physiological cards is to help use a different point of view, because one can know the health state of the subjects.
This question is rather the question of the competence of doctors who, knowing the organic value of the subjects, may prevent certain exercises or regulate the dose by banning or limiting certain performances.
For the normally healthy individual, the psysiological card is not useful. Only the practical observation of the material results is necessary.

Standing high jump | Running high jump | Standing long jump
Running long jump | Run 100 m               | Run 500 m
Run 1500 m            | Rope climb               | Throwing weight 7.25 kg
Lift weight with 2 hands | Swim 100 m     | Swim: Dive under the water
1. Any height is considered as not passed if any part of the body has touched the rope or indicating bar. Starting the standing jump, it is prohibited to move the feet in the way to take a call [roll call?] or the trampling.
2. The distances are measured from the dash line to the heels closest to this line, supposing that the jumper does not fall backwards after the landing.
3. Departure takes place seated on the ground and the climb is done without aid from the legs.
4. The dash is done inside a square 2 meters each side; it is prohibited to exit the square. The throw distance is measured from the line before the square, with the line extended to the center of the print made by the fall of the weight. Take the average of the right and left hand throws.
5. The test occurs for the successive lifts in correct “press”, the legs stiff. Time of rest one second: At the shoulders, the arms tense vertically and the trunk flexes forward (See chapter 6, part 3). The negative scale corresponds to the lift of less than 40 kgs [88 lbs] and is established at the rate of one point per 5 kg difference.
6. The course must be effectively without appreciable current.
7. The body must be entirely immersed. The negative scale is established at one point per each 2 seconds less than 10 seconds.

[Top of each column has name, age and weight of each subject]
[Each row lists the test, performance, and points]

« Last Edit: September 02, 2009, 10:50:15 AM by Gregg »

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Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
« Reply #17 on: July 20, 2009, 07:53:51 PM »

The strong being – Qualities which characterize the strong being – Conditions to meet to be considered “debroille” (to get by = to pass?) – Things to know; performances to accomplish.

60. The final goal of physical education is summarized: Make strong beings.
The strong being is not a specialist who excels in a single type of exercises or the extraordinary subject who has certain acrobatic prowess; it is the being physically perfectly developed in a complete and useful manner.
61. The value of physical development varies between individuals, it essentially depends on their initial make up.
There is for each a personal coefficient of vitality and a maximum physical power that is impossible to exceed. An easy work for some is a superhuman effort to accomplish for others.
The strong being is he, who by methodical work, has arrived to take his power to a degree near his maximum.
62. A subject gifted by heredity with a vigorous constitution may be relatively weak if, by laziness or for any other cause, the physical power which he possesses has an inferior value to that which his constitution would be able to permit him to attain.
On the other hand, a subject with an average constitution, or even weak, is able to be strong if, by work and perseverance, he can attain the degree of improvement corresponding to his constitution.
63. A subject of average constitution, of small size or low weight, without any special natural aptitude, but who is physically perfect, is practically superior in existence to a much better gifted subject, who possesses a more vigorous constitution, but incapable to use properly his natural force or the waste in pure loss.

64. The physical perfection is not acquired by the methodic physical education. It is always incomplete in one fashion or another.
Certain subjects profit from that which has been passed on hereditarily. Without needing physical education, and with very little work, he arrives to possess an absolute force much superior than the average. But these subjects make up a tiny exception.
Many are content to rest on their natural superiority and do not seek to push forward their improvement.
65. Complete physical improvement, resulting from the methodical physical education, translates finally for the acquisition of a certain number of qualities:
1- The force of resistance or the faculty to do a considerable amount of work without fatigue and wrestle against sickness.
This force, the most important of all to possess, depends entirely on the state of the organs and of the regular accomplishment of their functions;
2 – Muscular strength or the faculty to produce muscular efforts of a certain intensity, but of short duration. It depends directly on the development of the muscles (not of their absolute size) and also of the force of the will;
3 – Skill or the judicious and economic use of strength in all the exercises;
4 – The manly qualities: Will, energy, courage, boldness, coolness, perseverance, tenacity, firmness, etc.
5 – The knowledge and sufficient practice of all the natural and useful exercises;
6 – Complete muscular development, in rapport with the bone structure, with a very apparrent modeling of the muscles.
One may also add to this list:
The resistance to cold and bad weather;
Knowledge of the best ways to care for oneself, feed oneself, etc..
66. When the same subject has all the previous qualities developed to an exceptional degree, he is an athlete.
Unfortunately we can not develop all individuals to the highest degree in order to make them athletes.
Two things are opposed; on the one hand, the initial constitution of many subjects; on the other hand, the demands of today's society, which leaves a very limited time for physical education.

FIG. 3.
The muscle development  (back).
Example of fully developed muscles and having a well designed model.
 (Posed by the author of the book.)
« Last Edit: September 02, 2009, 11:00:17 AM by Gregg »

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Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
« Reply #18 on: July 21, 2009, 01:07:29 PM »

Minimum number of performances in the tests serving for the measurement of physical fitness.
  For a subject normally made up, at least 18 years old, these performances must not be less than performances corresponding to 0 on the scale of the different tests:

High jump without momentum: 0.8 m
High jump with momentum: 1 meter
Long jump without momentum: 2 meters
Long jump with momentum: 3 meters
Rope climb (without the help of legs): 5 meters
Race 100 meters: 16 seconds
Race 500 meters: 1 min 40 sec
Race 1500 meters: 6 minutes
Lift with two hands a stone or a weight of 40 kgs ( développé [press?] correct): 1 time
Throw a weight of 7.25 kg (average of right and left hand throws): 5 meters
Swim 100 meters: 3 minutes
Swimming: diving under water: 40 seconds.

72. A walking test may be added to the 12 tests for judging the value of the subject's abilities in this kind of natural exercise. But this test is not absolutely necessary. It is evident that a subject who has a sufficient ability in running, jumping and swimming, can be considered as having a sufficient capacity for walking exercise, which is a much less violent than the other three. Walking is not much for such a subject than a question about foot care and choice of suitable footwear *.

* As an indication, the following performances can be regarded as minimal (on flat terrain with no load):
Age 18 20 km in 4 hours
16-18 20 km in 4:30
14-16 20 km in 5 hours
12-14 20 km in 6 hours

On the other hand, any adult of average constitution must average in the same conditions (flat ground with no load) a distance of 50 km in a 12 hour day.

73. For a subject of 16 to 18, normal performance should not be less than the symbol - 1 in each test;
For a subject of 14 to 16, they must not be less than the symbol - 2 in each test;
Finally for a subject of 12 to 14, minimal performance corresponds to the symbol -3 in each test, ie they are:

High jump without momentum. . .0.5 m
High jump with momentum. . . . . .0.7 m
Long jump without momentum . . 1.7 m
Long jump with momentum.  . . . . 2.7 m
Rope climb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  2 m
Run 100 m . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19 seconds
Run 500 m . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1:52
Run 1500 m . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7 minutes
Throw weight of 7.25 kg * . . . 2 m
Lift stone or weight . . . . . . . .  25 kg
Swim 100 m . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3:36
Swim: diving under water . . .  4 sec

* Below 14 years, it is preferable to test using a weight of 4 kg. In this case use the scale of the weight of 7.25 kg to rate the performance of subjects of 12-14 years: Match 5 meters to zero points.

In summary, a subject of 16 to 18 has a sufficient capacity with - 12 points, a subject of 14 to 16 -24 points, and finally a subject of 12 to 14 with -36 points.

74. The essential utility exercises must be executed by all ages, from 10 years at least. The child can do them without encountering more difficulty than adults and are useful to one another to save themselves from danger, defend themselves, to bring help to their comrade, etc. These exercises are:

  1° Recover, ie hanging supported by the hands, without using the legs, cross a bar or crudely shaped traverse.
Weak subjects and children should preferably use the recovery on the forearms, the easiest and most practical.
  2° Traverse standing through a place where vertigo is feared: wall, gate, etc. having a height of at least 4 meters above the ground.
  3° Deep jump of 4 meters in height in an ordinary manner. Weak subjects and children must first hang from the hands, which significantly reduces the height of the drop.
  4° Learn different ways to carry an ill or injured person and carry by yourself a comrade of equal weight to your own.
  5° Throw an object skillfully. Note the skill of the following test:
Hit with each of the arms successively a 1 square meter target at 20 meters distance with an object of a suitable weight, ordinary shape or size: pebble, stone, ball, etc.
  6° Know the most usual strikes of wrestling and boxing and be able to attack.
Be able to control a dangerous individual.

75. The above conditions represent the minimum required to be considered “passed”, giving a quick and easy way to determine the value of an ordinary subject.
  The subject who takes the tests succeeds or fails to execute the indicated performances or it knows or does not know the different ways to climb, swim or defend may be useful at a given moment.
  It is therefore easy, by finding what weak points, to immediately determine the direction to give the education of this subject so that it can achieve the desired level.
  At the age of man any subject who, in the course of a day, is unable to entirely satisfy the conditions that characterize "passed" should be regarded as a physical void.

76. To have a very precise idea of the general physical value of a subject already "passed" or compare it to another subject, proceed as follows:
  1° Note very exactly the performances in the 12 classic tests of the sheet-type. Deduce the value of his physical fitness by using the special scale suitable for the establishment of the sheet-type recording the results;
  2° Note the extent of his knowledge of sports and special abilities by making him do all the more utilitarian exercises, after those identified as essential to be considered "passed", ie :
    a) Handling of weapons: epee, saber, rifle and revolver;
    b) Row and maneuver boats;
    c) Horse riding and handling harnesses;
    d) Driving mechanical transportation: bicycle, automobile, etc.. ; 
    e) Use of the most common tools: hammer, saw, file, ax, shovel, pick, etc.
« Last Edit: August 01, 2009, 04:55:46 PM by Gregg »

Offline Gregg HIPK

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Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
« Reply #19 on: July 24, 2009, 03:45:11 PM »

[Control?] Hold for the exercises — Basic precautions to avoid the chill. — Training for resistance to cold. — Air baths. — Using water. — Local and general fatigue and breathlessness – General rules to reduce fatigue.

77. The physical exercises must take place in fresh air.
  Working in the open air is the characteristic of any rational method. A complete physical education can not be done in your room or in a closed gym.
  There are circumstances such as: beating rain, snow, impassable terrain, extreme cold, very violent winds, etc., where the exercises are forced inside, but this kind of work must still be regarded as an exception.
  In this case, always be careful to ensure ventilation of the premises as complete as possible, or, preferably working under simple shelters: sheds, covered playgrounds, etc.
78. Physical exercise should not be done immediately after eating.
  In the case of moderate work, an interval of one hour is enough for children, but adults it is beter to wait longer.
  Each time one wants to engage in violent exercise or  produce great efforts, it is preferable to wait until digestion has finished, say 3 or 4 hours. But one must  not do considerably much work in the early morning.

Fig 9.
Group of children from 8 to 11 years going to work clothed in simple boxer shorts.

79. Before work it is essential to remove all unnecessary or cumbersome clothing.
  The air bath (head, torso and legs bare) is a wonderful training in weather resistance along with the best care of the skin.
  The best clothes are: bare torso, simple boxer shorts, short or long canvas pants with an elastic belt if needed, light shoes or simply barefoot.
  Depending on the weather circumstances, the personal aptitude at the moment or the type of exercise to perform, add knitted wool or cotton or a soft shirt.
  Particularly with regard to basic learning exercises, the clothes are not allowed to control the correction of the movements.
  The work performed, bare torso is essential to learn the movement mechanics; it allows to judge the appearance of the body, to see what parts are weak or poorly developed, to find defects or deformities (fig.10).
  In group teaching this kind of work lets the subjects study each other, to see progress in their exterior development and learning on the body itself the play and the role of the different muscles.
  When one only does basic education exercises, there is interest in working in front of a large enough mirror to be able to control oneself.

80. It is very necessary to avoid chilling, after work, that the clothes are never wet with sweat.
  We must remove sufficient clothing or have the effects of special work.
  The more one is dressed, the more easily one sweats. Clothing wet from sweat is not only the leading cause of colds and bronchitis, but they give the body a very unpleasant feeling.
  Anyone who has experienced that feeling naturally searches to avoid its return, if he is too dressed or if he is obliged to be too dressed, by working with less effort.
  Light clothing avoids this inconvenience and also stimulates the body to produce work.

81. Education against cold is made:
1° By air, light and sun baths in in every season, having at least the torso bare;
2° By the great cold baths;
3° By washing of all sorts, local or general, and equally by the following procedure which is very effective: walking barefoot in cold water, dew, humid terrain, etc.
Training for resistance to cold is part of

the physical education as same title as the other gymnastic exercises. It is why the uniform with the bare torso must be the rule all the time when the atmospheric circumstances are not too unfavorable. One obtains in this fashion a very rapid endurance of the skin, and an extraordinary addiction to suffer all the brusque changes of temperature.
  To assure a continual training it is not necessary to keep the torso bare during an entire meeting; during winter air baths of short duration are sufficient.

82. Never stay inactive during sessions where one keeps the torso bare. As long as the organism works, there is no need to fear the same with a harsh temperature.
  Only the chill suffering the body before or after the work presents a danger.
  During the bad season, if the cold is too biting, hold the work sessions by first warming up the body by hopping in place or the runs of short duration.

83. The skin must be maintained in a perfect state of cleanliness by washing, ablutions, dry or humid rubs, great baths, etc.
  It is an essential condition of hygiene.
  The effects of exercise are greatly augmented, from the hygienic point of view, if one finishes each session of work with a shower, ablution, a quick swim, dry rub, humid rub, etc.
  The work done, bare torso and in open air, makes less necessary the treatment of the skin after the exercise, but after a work during which one stays dressed, certainly when one has perspired a lot, a cold ablution is essential.

84. No work can be sustained beyond certain limits. When one feels a certain difficulty to continue a certain work, it is because the body is suffering the attacks of fatigue.
« Last Edit: September 02, 2009, 12:03:51 PM by Gregg »