Author Topic: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"  (Read 24195 times)

Offline Gregg HIPK

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Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
« Reply #40 on: September 04, 2009, 12:33:46 PM »
Sometimes a man's gotta do what a man's gotta do... ;p  There are a couple terms which are different than English. I'll go through and fix them as I get a better understanding of the chapter. For the strokes, I'm going to only put in the photos and photo captions, not the pages and pages of detail.   ;D

CHAPTER IV
SWIMMING

General considerations – Principle effects on the body – The lesson or complete swimming session - Breaststroke on the stomach - Breaststroke on the back – Standing swimming - Floating – Diverse strokes of endurance and speed - Diving under water and swimming between two waters. - Diving headfirst and feet-first – Rescue exercises – Accidental submersion - Requirements and precautions & group training of swimming exercises.

I. GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS

306. Swimming is the most comprehensive of all the exercises.
  A complete exercise must be both hygienic, aesthetic and utilitarian; it must develop the proper muscle strength as well as the force of resistance and to acquire skill and moral energy.   Swimming meets all these requirements:
  1° The hygienic effect is intense: it activates all major body functions, especially respiration; it cleans the skin and hardens it to cold; finally it is done outdoors.
  2° Its action is very effective for the “ampliation” of the chest and building respiratory capacity. Indeed, in all the ways of swimming, the arms are constantly brought back beyond the head in the trunk extension, which produces the elevation of the ribs, through the expansion of the rib cage. Moreover, the discomfort produced by the liquid mass and the violence of the muscular work forces long and deep breathing.
  3° It also has a very intense action on the development of the whole musculature, because it requires various muscular contractions of the arms, legs, trunk and head.
  In general, all these contractions, being very extensive, are wonderful exercises for loosening the joints and members; they have a very excellent effect on the recovery of the spine.
  4° To go further and faster requires perfect coordination of movements and an appropriate rhythm.
  5° The difficult exercises of diving and lifesaving develop skill, composure, courage and self-confidence.
  6° Finally, all the swimming exercises are indisputably useful.

307. For a swim be useful and beneficial, it is necessary to take it in a certain fashion.
  One must enter the water knowing what he is going to do, otherwise we risk wasting time and no progress is possible.
  To learn something or just to improve, we must work methodically, have a goal and draw a program.
  Swimming should be a real lesson.

308. The session or lesson of swimming, like the gymnastic session or lesson, should consist of a number of different exercises, performed in a logical order, and be fully regulated as to expenditure of work.

309. A complete session or lesson of swimming should include:
  1° One or more brutal immersions (of any height) either head or feet-first, returning immediately to the surface;
  2° A course on the stomach of ordinary breaststroke, with a very slow pace to start.
  This way of swimming is the best to remedy curvatures of the spine and to acquire or maintain correct posture.
  3° A course on the back.
  The backstroke is a rest after a course of some length on the belly; this swim is the most essential to know for rescue.
  4° A dive under water, starting either from a height, or from the surface of the water. This exercise is to stay as long as possible under water, the body completely submerged.
  5° A motionless position or complete rest, "float."
No movement of arms or legs should be make during this exercise.
  6° One or more "packages" using the fastest swimming methods, the "cut", marinara, etc..
  7° Lastly, complete the lesson with a few slow front or back breaststrokes, enough to restore calm to the respiration and circulation before the release of water.
  This is the program for a complete hygienic and utilitarian swim.

310. Propulsion in water is the result of a series of efforts of impulses produced by a proper motion of the upper and lower members.
  It is noteworthy that all the ways to progress in water are based on the same principle. The impulse effort is obtained: first, by the sudden meeting of the legs and, secondly, by arms acting like an oar or paddle.
  The sudden meeting of the legs, which produces most of the impulse effort is perfectly comparable to the closure of two branches of a pair of scissors. It can be done in two ways: first legs spread apart, either laterally (regular breaststroke, etc..) or, in front and in back of the body (Indian breaststroke, etc.. ).
  The arm movement will also occur in two ways: in a horizontal plane (regular breaststroke, etc..) or otherwise, in a vertical plane (sidestroke, etc..).
  Finally, the movement of the legs with the arms can be either simultaneous or alternated.

311. Swimming may be broken up into four main phases:
  1° Starting position or preparation of the members to produce their effort;
  2° Impulse effort;
  3° Time of rest, the members extended, to let the body glide and profit from the impulse;
  4° Return of the members to the starting position.
  The work performed by members of two consecutive returns to the starting position is what is called a complete stroke or full motion.
  The cadence of swimming is the number of strokes or complete movements executed in a minute.

312. Consider:
  The endurance or resistance swims permit the effect of a long run with the minimum fatigue;
  The speed swims where one seeks the greatest speeds possible over short distances.

313. How to breathe has capital importance in all the swimming.
  The inhalation is done at the end of the rest time, at the beginning of the return of the members to the initial position, then that the body is raised lighter. It is very fast and is usually done with an open mouth.
  The exhalation is done with a firm mouth; it is very slow and lasts all the rest of the time not used for inhalation.
  The respiration is regulated on the cadence of the stroke.
  With the endurance or resistance swims, where the cadence is relatively slow, make an inhalation at each complete stroke.
  With the speed swims, where the cadence is very fast, make a single inhalation after two, three, or four complete strokes.
  The advantageous or economic cadence of the endurance swims is evident that corresponds to the cadence of normal breathing, 15 to 20 complete strokes per minute, on average.

314. The swimming exercises have a double goal:
  Exercises swimming must have a double goal: teach people to get through crises in all circumstances and to be useful to others by knowing rescue. They include three major categories:
  1° The different ways to progress and to hold yourself at the surface of the water;
  2° The "work" on the water and under water;
  3° Rescue exercises.

Offline Gregg HIPK

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Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
« Reply #41 on: September 11, 2009, 04:38:52 PM »
Here are most of the captions, and some further explanation. I'm on a different computer - I'll have to add the photos later. Maybe Monday?

II – BASIC CLASSIC STROKES
Breaststroke – Backstroke – Treading water – Floating


FIG 151 – BREASTSTROKE – Beginning or preparation position


FIG 152 - 1st part of the impulse effort
Release the lower members, the feet always flexed; and extend the arms in front of the head.


FIG 153 – End of the impulse effort, after the scissor kick, or closing of the legs, the feet extended; and position of the body during the entire rest time.


FIG 154 – Horizontal and lateral arm movement, the palms of the hands facing outwards.
Make a deep breath during this movement.


FIG 155 – Foot flexed, foot extended
  Figure designed to show the two principle movements of the feet: the flexion and the extension, which have a great importance in the different ways to swim.

[BLURRY PAGE - 249]


FIG 156 BACKSTROKE – Initial or preparation phase.
  Flex the lower members in the same way as the breaststroke, the knees spread as much as possible and the feet well flexed and turned outwards. At the same time, flex the forearms, elbows and body, the palms of the hands flat over the middle of the chest, fingertips meeting.


FIG 157 – Impulse effort
  Make extension of the legs by prolonging the thighs and pushing the water with the soles of the feet


FIG 158 – End of the impulse effort after the scissors kick or the brusque closing of the legs and the arrival of the arms along the body. The body keeps this position during the entire rest time.


FIG 159 – End of the impulse effort: the head and upper body emerge. Take advantage of this instant to make a rapid and deep inhalation.

III. — Treading water.
333. Treading water consists of keeping yourself perpendicular to the surface of the water. From this position one may stay in place, advance, retreat, move laterally, or turn oneself completely.
  This way to swim is very useful if one wants:
Observe what is happening around oneself;
Let oneself drift with the current;
Attend to a rescue;
To keep something rather light above the water;
To maintain oneself in rough water;
To undress oneself in the water;
Keep up a very heavy object or transport an object without getting it wet;
Keep up a tired person, etc.

334. Treading water is made of four principal phases, like the breaststroke and backstroke previously described.
  The lower members do the ordinary movements of the breaststroke or backstroke. As for the movements of the upper members, they are different, depending if one wants to stay in place, advance, or retreat.

To stay in place in a vertical position, the movements are as follows:
1st PHASE. — Initial or preparation position.
  Flex the arms, the elbows to the body, the hands flat at about chest height, palms of the hands facing down and horizontal, the fingertips joined together.
  Flex the lower members, knees spread laterally, feet flexed and turned outward.
2nd PHASE. — Impulse Effort.
  Extend the arms horizontally and lower them extended toward the thighs, palms of the hands always facing down, and horizontal.
  Extend the legs laterally, the feet flexed, Étendre les jambes latéralement, les pieds en flexion, then reunite them by extending the feet.
3rd PHASE. — Rest time.
  Keep the arms long and extended, the palms of the hands facing down and horizontal.
  Keep the lower members united and extended.
4th PHASE. — Deep breath and return of the members to the initial position.
  At the end of the impulse, the body is lifted vertically, make at that moment a deep inhale.
  Lift the arms in front of the body and turn the palms of the hands vertically, then return to the initial position by returning the palms to a horizontal position. Flex the lower members and also return them to the initial position.

335. After this if one wants to see, if one wants to stay in place in the treading water, the movement of the arms, instead of moving horizontally like the breaststroke, is done vertically.
The impulse effort of the upper and lower members is done simultaneously as in the backstroke.

336. To move forward, backward or sideways in the vertical position, the movement of the lower members does not change, depending on the movement to make, one uses the arms in a different way.
  To advance, the movement of the upper members is as follows:
1st PHASE. — Initial or preparation phase.
  No changes.
2nd PHASE. — Impulse effort.
  Extend the arms in front of the body, the palms of the hands horizontal. Turn the palms vertically to face the body, and flex the wrists, the fingertips are joined.
  Then bring back the hands to touch the chest, the palms always vertical.
3rd PHASE. — Rest time.
  Keep the hands flat over the chest.
4th PHASE. — Return to initial position.
  Simply place the palms horizontal.

337. To retreat:
1st PHASE. — Initial or preparation phase.
  No change.
2nd PHASE. — Impulse effort.
  Extend the arms in front of the body, turning the palms out as much as possible, thumb toward the bottom, fingertips together.
3rd PHASE. — Rest time.
  Keep the arms elongated, palms out.
4th PHASE. — Return to the initial position.
  Place the palms horizontal and return them to the chest.

338. To move laterally (to the right for example):
1st PHASE. — Initial position.
  Right arm is extended laterally, palm of the hand is flat. Left arm is in the normal position.
2nd PHASE. — Impulse effort.
  Movement of the right arm: Turn the palm vertically and bring the hand back flat to the chest . Movement of the left arm: Extend the left arm to the left, palm turned out as much as possible, thumb underneath.
3rd PHASE – Rest time.
  Right hand is flat on the chest. Left arm is extended, palm down.
4th PHASE – Return to initial position.
  Place the right hand flat and extend the right arm laterally. Turn the left hand flat and return it to the chest.

339. To make the movement forward, backward or sideways easier, it is necessary to lightly lean the upper body to the side one wants to move.
  To move sideways, one of the two arms may be used, the other staying constantly in initial position, palm flat.

340. The movement of the body results uniquely from the action of the hands which, taking support over the liquid mass, pulls the body to them in forward movement, pushes to move back, or pulls with one hand and pushes with the other for lateral movement.
  The position of the hands has a very large importance.
  For all the preparation movements or the return to initial position, the hands, not having at that moment an active role to fill, have to put up the least resistance possible. The opposite is true during the impulse effort.
  For example, to stay in place in a vertical position, the return to initial position is made with the hands vertical. The hands turn horizontally to push the body.
  Moving forward, the hands are carried horizontally to the front; The palms turn vertically to pull back the body.

341. To turn completely in place, to the right, start by carrying the head to the right and by advancing the left shoulder and hip. Then make the arm movement as in the lateral progression, by carrying the right arm to the rear of the shoulder line as much as possible and the left a bit in front of the body.
  Make these movements in the opposite direction to turn left.

342. Learning to tread water is simple and easy.
  It is enough, being in breaststroke, to little by little reduce the angle of the body until it reaches a vertical position.
  The head is kept upright or slightly leaned to the back.
  Breathing is very easy, the impulse effort of the lower members is enough to raise the body.


FIG 160 POSITION TO GIVE THE BODY FOR FLOATING. The palms of the hands are horizontal, parallel to the surface of the water, the soles of the feet also. The head is thrown back to make the nose and mouth emerge.


FIG 161 BALANCE POSITION OF THE BODY IN FLOATING TRAINING. The body swings vertically. The flotation line is here above the axis of the ears. The following figure represents the same subject training the float, it is below.


FIG 162 The position of equilibrium has its place under an inclination which depends on the buoyancy of the subject.

III – VARIOUS ENDURANCE AND SPEED STROKES
I – Resistance or endurance strokes

Sidestroke – Ordinary Indian stroke – Continuous Indian stroke


FIG 163 – SIDESTROKE
  Starting position for the impulse effort: 1 – To the left with the superior arm under the water; 2 – To the right, with the superior arm above the water.


FIG 164 – SIDESTROKE
  1 – At left; first part of the impulse effort: release laterally the legs before their reunion at the line of the body; lengthen in front the right arm; draw the left arm to the back. - 2 – At right: End of the impulse effort and position of the body during the entire rest time.


FIG 165 – SIDESTROKE – Detail of the movement of the arms, the body being on the right side, and the superior arm works above the surface of the water. During the return movement of the superior arm to attack position beyond the head, watch well to always project the shoulder forward as much as possible, at the same time as the arm.


FIG 166 – THE INDIAN STROKE – Starting position for the impulse effort: the left subject with the superior arm under the water; the right subject with the superior arm out of the water


FIG 167 – THE INDIAN STROKE – 1 – At left: end of the impulse effort and position of the body during the entire rest time. The closing movement or scissor kick of the legs in the sense of in front and behind the body is finished; the right arm is lengthened in front, palm of the hand is under, the left arm is drawn back and touches the left thigh. - 2 – At right: work of the right arm or inferior and at same time return the members to starting position.


FIG 168 – THE INDIAN STROKE – Detail of the leg movement, the body assumed to be lying on the right side.
  The distance of the the legs is produced to the front and back way and not in the lateral way. The thighs stay in contact. The foot of the superior leg is flexed, and that of the inferior leg is extended at the beginning of the scissor kick. The effort of the superior leg is made with the back of that leg, and that of the inferior leg with the front.


FIG 169 – THE CONTINUOUS INDIAN STROKE – 1 – At left: First impulse effort: drawing the left arm back, lengthening the right arm in front, distance of the legs. - 2 – At right: Second impulse effort: closing the legs, return of the left arm in front, descent of the right arm and return to the starting position.


FIG 170 – CROSSING OF THE FEET IN THE INDIAN STROKE – Position of the legs and the feet at the end of the impulse effort and during the entire rest time.
The body is supposed to be seen in front view, lying on the right side. The left foot is in this case under the sole of the right foot.


FIG 171 – THE DOUBLE SCISSORS KICK – 1 – At left: Starting position of the legs for the double scissors kick, the body supposed to be lying on the right side. – 2 – At right: Starting position of the legs at the end of the impulse effort and during the rest time. The legs are open; the upper leg is behind the lower leg.

« Last Edit: September 13, 2009, 03:42:54 PM by Gregg »

Offline Gregg HIPK

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Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
« Reply #42 on: September 11, 2009, 11:00:29 PM »
II. Speed strokes.

Marinara. — The regular cut. — The Indian cut. — The dog stroke or ordinary alternative cut. —  The crawl stroke or the Indian alternative cut.


FIG 172 – MARINARA – 1 – Left: starting position for the impulse effort. — 2 - Right: end of the impulse effort. The movement of the lateral release and the closing of the legs is finished; the left arm continues its horizontal circular movement, the palm of the hand outside.


FIG 173 – THE ORDINARY CUT — 1 – Left: Starting position for the impulse effort. – 2 – Right: 2nd part of the impulse effort.
  In the 2nd part of the effort, the movement of lateral release and closing the legs is finished; The left arm comes to make a sculling motion from left to right and left hand is found at the height of the right nipple. During the 2nd part of the impulse effort, the left hand continues its effort over the water and comes to touch the left thigh; at the same time, the right arm goes out of the water and places itself beyond of the head in the starting position.


FIG 174 THE INDIAN CUT – 1 – Left: Starting position for the first impulse effort. — 2 – Right: First impulse effort. The movement of closing or the scissor kick of the legs is achieved; the left arm finishes  its effort and the right arm comes to place beyond the head in position to start the 2nd impulse effort.
  In this stroke there is not a leg movement legs for two arm movements. During the return movement of the arms to starting position, watch well to always project the shoulder forward as much as possible, at the same time as the arms.


FIG 175 – THE DOG STROKE OR ORDINARY CUT WITH ALTERNATIVE LEG MOVEMENT – 1 – Left: Starting position for the first impulse effort. – 2 – Right: End of the first impulse effort (left arm stuck to the body, left leg extended laterally, then returned to the line of the body) and starting position for the second impulse effort.
  This stroke is also done by working together the opposite members, that is to say, left arm with right leg and right arm with left leg. This way is easier because it is more natural.


FIG 176. – CRAWL STROKE OR INDIAN CUT WITH ALTERNATING MOVEMENT OF THE LEGS – 1 – Left: Starting position of the first impulse effort. – 2 – Right: End of the first impulse effort and starting position of the second effort.
  During the 1st effort the hand has been returned directly as far as to touch the left thigh; the left leg is come to the line of the body. The closing movement of the left leg is done by first bringing the left thigh back, the left knee lightly behind the right knee, secondly by brusquely extending the left leg by making a strong forward kick. It is not necessary to flex the leg as far as shown in the figure.
  This stroke is also done by working opposing members: left arm with right leg and right arm with left leg.

IV. DIVING UNDERWATER AND SWIMMING BETWEEN TWO WATERS

369. Diving involves immersing the body including the head, below the water surface.
The swim between two waters is being submerged, to travel a certain distance or reach a certain depth.
  In this particular situation of the body being plunged, it is obviously impossible to take in any air.
The duration of immersion is consequently very limited and its value depends more or less on the tolerance of the respiratory and circulatory functions.

370. Diving is an exercise of paramount importance. It is particularly useful when it comes to:
  Getting out in case of accidental drowning;
  Maintaining oneself in rough water;
  Rescue a drowning person or one suspended in midwater;
  Search for a person fallen in the water;
  Pick up an object at the bottom of the water, etc..

381. The diving exercises are always a danger.
  Follow an extremely mild progression for the duration of stay under water or on the depth reached *. Once one feels the slightest discomfort or dizziness, ascend to the surface as quickly as possible and leave the water immediately.

* The performance scale for diving duration already indicated in Part 1, Chapter IX, in the table of observing test results is the following:
10 seconds = 0 point
20             = 1
30             = 2
40             = 3 (superior ability)
50             = 4
60             = 5 (exceptional ability)
etc.

By adopting the same gradation process and the same notation as all the tests of results observation, a scale of depth diving performance is as follows:
3 meters = 0 point
4           = 1
5           = 2
6           = 3 (superior ability)
7           = 4
8           = 5 (exceptional ability)
etc..

When one dives for a significant time, it is prudent not to exceed a depth of 3 to 4 meters.

[PAGE 289 BAD SCAN]


FIG 177

… rather large depth, order someone to look after themselves, or better, to be attached by a strap fitted with a rope of sufficient length and whose end is held in the hand by one person remained on the shore (Fig. 177).
  Do not assume that because one could make a dive so many seconds a given day, we can safely start the next day or after that.  Everything depends on the particular conditions under which one is located. The body’s tolerance is highly variable and the slightest cause may influence it: digestion, nutrition, sleep, temperature, atmospheric conditions, etc..


FIG 178. DIVING FEET FIRST - Jump in water like a long deep jump. Or good: 1° Jump in a crouched position, the trunk nearly vertical, like the subject who is more on the right, and hold the front of the legs with the hands and take care to lower the points of the feet before reaching the surface of the water. — 2° Jump in vertical position, the body completely elongated, like the left subject; the arms along the body or spread laterally or vertically.


FIG 179 – HEADFIRST DIVE (Detail of the first phase).
1. Inhale long and deep by raising the arms (left subject) — 2. Drop the arms and carry them back by flexing the lower members at the same time, the upper body leaning forward (middle subject) – 3. Vigorously extend the lower members by quickly bringing the arms beyond the head (right subject).


FIG 180 – DIVING HEADFIRST (Detail of the later phase)
l. The left subject has arrived at the precise moment where he has toppled forward, has to at that instant vigorously extend the lower members and quickly carry the arms beyond the head. — 2. The right subject has left the ground: the lower members are completely elongated, and the arms are extended beyond the head. The body will enter the water at an angle of about 45°. The chin stays on the chest shortly before arriving at the water’s surface.


[PAGE 294 BAD SCAN]


FIG 181 b – HEADFIRST DIVE.
A correct dive produces little splashing of water, and the body penetrates the water like an arrow. To do this the direction of the velocity which the body is animated at the moment of entry into the liquid mass is, at this precise moment, conformed with the line formed by the body itself.


FIG. 182. – EXAMPLE OF A HIGH DIVE
The greater the height, the less the impulse given by the legs need to be strong. To not enter the water too vertically and, consequently, to avoid diving too deep, "glide" as long as possible by keeping the head higher than feet. Don’t let the upper body be more than 1 or 2 meters below the surface of the water.


FIG 182 B – ANOTHER EXAMPLE OF A HIGH DIVE.
Model of a ladder with a mobile platform for conducting dives at different heights.

VI. - RESCUE EXERCISES

Swim with the arms or legs only. — Diving in every way possible. —  Transporting objects. —Collecting objects. — Rescue carry. — Defense of a caught rescuer. - Rescue of a sunk and capsized boat — Crossing running water and establishing a “back-and-forth”. — Swimming clothed.

389. From a utilitarian point of view, swimming exercises should have as their essential goal the work on water and under water, which is not possible without any rescue practice.
  The following exercises are chosen and classified so they can gradually prepare the swimmer to get by and also to assist a person in danger of drowning.
  They should be done first in swimwear before we can think of doing them fully clothed.

I. — Swim with the arms or legs only.

390. 1° Swimming on the belly, back, standing and side, with legs and one arm.
Immobilize the other arm by placing the hand on the hip, neck, on top of the head, etc..

2 - Swimming on the belly, back, feet and side, with legs only. Immobilize the arms by placing hands on hips, neck, on top of the head, etc..

3° Swimming on the belly, back, feet and side, with arms only. Keep legs together and extended in the line of the body.


FIG 183 – HOW TO TRANSPORT A LIGHT OBJECT WITHOUT IT GETTING WET
Hold the hand above the water, the arm flexed.

4 - Moving forward with one arm only, the other members held motionless in any position.

5° Moving forward with one leg, the other members being held motionless in any position.

II. - Diving in every way possible.

391. 1° Diving feet first and come to the surface as quickly as possible facing the direction of departure.

2° Dive and return immediately to the surface in the direction of departure and taking as little water as possible.

3° Dive in all the possible inclinations.

4° Diving, feet first, and as fast as possible face the point of departure. To do this turn around in the water before reappearing at the surface.

5° Dive and turn as soon as possible to face the starting point. To do this turn around in the water before reappearing at the surface.


FIG 184 - DRESSED SWIMMERS TRANSPORTING A RIFLE by keeping it in place at the shoulder with one hand.

6° Dive with momentum, feet first. Make a run beforehand and try to jump with momentum as long deep and far as possible.

7° Dive with a running start. Make a run and dive head first as far as possible.
Perform the same exercise without use of both feet.

8° Dive without momentum and with momentum facing the direction of departure after a full somersault in water.

9° Fall over backwards in any way, turning in the water facing forward on the belly, or to the back  on the back.
  Never stretch the body completely when falling; instead, flex the trunk as much as possible on the legs once in the air and strongly tuck the head to the chest to avoid a painful flat-back landing.


FIG 185. – TRANSPORT OF OBJECTS HEAVIER THAN WATER - Swimming across a river with rifles.

10° Fall into the water by surprise by being given a push.

III.  — Transporting objects lighter and heavier than water.


FIG 186 TRANSPORTING CLOTHES WITHOUT GETTING THEM WET.

IV. —Pick up objects by diving.


FIG 187 PICK UP OBJECTS BY DIVING.

V. - Rescue carry


FIG 188 – HELP CARRY A SUBJECT WHO IS NOT IN IMMEDIATE DANGER
  The person to be helped places a hand or two hands on the shoulders of the rescuer and is towed behind or to the side.


FIG 189. - HELP TO CARRY A PERSON WHO IS NOT IN IMMEDIATE DANGER 
  The person needing help (left foreground) puts his hands on his rescuer’s shoulders. The rescuer stays like this or tows in front of him swimming on the belly or, preferably, on the back.


FIG 190 – RESCUE CARRY.
  Seize the person to be rescued from behind with both hands, either by arms above the elbow or under the armpits. Tow the person by swimming with the legs only, preferably on the back.


FIG 190 B. – RESCUE CARRY
  The way which consists of seizing the person to be rescued from behind, by the arm or under the armpit, is the safest and most practical of all. It prevents the rescuer from being caught.


FIG 191 RESCUE CARRY.
  Seize the person to be rescued (left subject) from in front with both hands, either at the arms, above the elbows or under the armpits. Tow the person by swimming with only the legs, preferably on the back, like the subject on the right.


FIG 191 B – RESCUE CARRY
  Another example of a rescue from in front. This way is not as good as rescuing from behind, because the rescuer is in danger of being caught.


FIG 192 – RESCUE CARRY
  Seize the person to be rescued (left subject) from behind with both hands and grab the clothes on each side of the neck or high on the chest.
  Tow the person by swimming on the back with only the legs.
  The rescuer must sacrifice the proper breathing to constantly keep the head of the person he is rescuing above water.


FIG 193 RESCUE CARRY.
  Seize the person to be rescued (right subject) from behind and encircle his neck with the left arm and grab his clothes with the left hand. Swim on the back or side with both legs and one arm.


FIG 193 B – RESCUE CARRY
  Rescue from behind by seizing with a single arm. This way to rescue is very easy and permits easy and rapid swimming, either on the back or side, with both legs and one arm.


FIG 193 C – RESCUE CARRY
  Another view of a rescue from behind with one arm. This way permits very easy keeping the head of the rescued person above the water.


FIG 194 - RESCUE CARRY – Supporting a person in danger with two rescuers at the same time. The rescuers place themselves one in front, one behind, and seize the person in danger by the arms or under the armpits. They keep his head above water by swimming upright with only the legs.


FIG 195 – RESCUE CARRY – Transporting a person in danger with two rescuers at  the same time.
The rescuers place themselves one in front, one behind, and seize the person in danger by the arms or under the armpits. One swims on his back, the other on his belly, in order to keep the person in danger on his back during the towing.
  In this fashion, the head of the person emerges very easily. 


FIG 196 – RESCUE CARRY – Transporting a person in danger by two rescuers at the same time.
The two rescuers place themselves on each side of the person in danger, and seize him by an arm or grasp his clothing with a single arm. The rescuers swim on the stomach and keep the person being towed on his back.

VI. —Defense of a caught rescuer.


FIG 197 – DEFENSE OF THE RESCUER CAUGHT IN THE WATER.
  Left group: The rescuer (left) being seized by the wrists, returns his wrists inwards and extends his arms laterally.
  Right group: The rescuer (right), being seized by the waist and an arm, frees himself by using the wrestling parry against the front waist hold.


FIG 198 DEFENSE OF A RESCUER CAUGHT IN THE WATER
  Left group: The rescuer (left) being seized by the neck, places his left hand behind the back of the person needing rescue, and with the right hand, vigorously pushes the head of the person backward.
  Right group: The rescuer (right) being seized with arms around the body, frees himself by pushing the person’s head backward and applying a knee to the person’s abdomen.


FIG 199 DEFENSE OF A CAUGHT RESCUER.
  The rescuer places one hand under the chin of the person who comes to seize him and pushes his head vigorously back to break his grip.

VII. - Rescue a capsized or sinking boat.


FIG 200 CAPSIZING OF A BOAT
  At the moment the boat capsizes, the boaters escape and  move apart as fast as possible, so that they do not stay entangled under it when it overturns.


FIG 200 B – CAPSIZING OF A BOAT.
  At the moment the boat capsizes, watch well to clear yourself as fast as possible of objects which may hinder the limbs, primarily the legs.


FIG 201 – CAPSIZING OF A BOAT.
  Once the boat capsizes, the boaters, after they scatter, regroup themselves at the front and rear and try with all their effort to upright it.


FIG 202 – CAPSIZING OF A BOAT
  The boat which has sunk and capsized is kept upright by the boaters who distributed themselves equally on both sides. In this situation they wait for rescue or swim to tow.

VIII. - Crossing running water and establishing a back-and-forth.


FIG 203 – CROSSING RUNNING WATER BY USING A RAFT
  A simple makeshift raft is the best way and the most practical to effect a course or crossing a river with persons of few exercises or those who don’t all know how to swim. In the latter case, the persons should attach themselves solidly to the raft.

412. When the number of people is too great for them to find a place around or on the raft, it is necessary to make several trips and the best swimmers tow the raft back to its starting point.
  If one has a long enough rope, one establishes a “back and forth” between the two sides.
When the raft makes its first voyage, it takes one end of the “back and forth”, the other end being held by the people remaining on the shore. The ends of the “back and forth” are then securely fastened on each shore and the tight rope serves as a means of hauling swimmers who bring the raft.
  Instead of fixing the two ends of the “back and forth” on the banks, you can attach one end to the raft.
  Persons who have not yet crossed can easily return the raft back to themselves after the first have landed. If one has two strings of sufficient length, one may establish a “there and back” on each side of the banks.
  The raft then performs its passage in both directions, without the swimmers having to tow it. When crossing a river, never try to defeat the current; always land at a point downstream from the point of departure.

IX. — Swimming clothed.
413. Start by simply putting on shorts and shoes. Gradually increase bit by bit the number of clothes until entirely dressed in street clothes.
  Repeat the previous exercises, in particular the work on the water and under water, being fully dressed.

414. Swimming, fully clothed, is extremely tiring and at the same time very slow.
  Firstly buoyancy is less than swimming in bathing suits, except for a very short period immediately after immersion, when the water has not fully penetrated the clothing. This reduced buoyancy often makes it impossible to float without movement.
  Also the limb movements cannot have all the desired motion, because of the discomfort caused by clothing.
  Finally pockets of water formed by the clothes provide a significant obstacle to propulsion.
  Generally, the pace of the movements of swimming fully clothed must be much slower than swimming in a bathing suit if one does not want to unnecessarily tire oneself.

415. Being in the water fully clothed, it is possible to undress completely. This exercise is both an application of treading water, floating, diving and swimming with the legs or arms only.
  The removal of coat and waistcoat is the only relatively easy part of the exercise. It is enough to stay in the vertical position while treading water with the legs only.
  To remove the shoes, trousers and shorts, it is necessary to crouch and remain submerged long enough to cast off each of these garments.
  To remove the shirt or sweater, tread water and dive if necessary to pass these clothes more easily over the head.

416. Apart from the coat and waistcoat, the removal of additional clothing, pants, shorts, shoes and shirt is extremely painful and tiring, sometimes exhausting.
  Moreover, pants and shorts can stay engaged in the legs and thereby limit the use of lower limbs.
  The shirt and the sweater can remain engaged on the head and cause drowning.
  In summary, while it is useful to remove some effects, it may be dangerous to undress completely in case of accidental drowning.

VII. - ACCIDENTAL SUBMERSION

Getting oneself out of danger in case of accidental submersion – Rescuing a person in danger – Caring for drowned people.

I. —Getting oneself out of danger in case of accidental submersion.
417. After an accidental fall, ascend to the surface as quickly as possible and breath.
Keep all ones composure to judge the situation, thinking to save strength and above all not to make unnecessary movements. If a good place for rescue is near, win it as soon as possible while dressed. If it is moving away, swim with the greatest care possible and well regulate the pace to avoid being overcome by fatigue.
  Get rid of the clothes easier to remove, as the coat and waistcoat.
  Sometimes there will be interest in keeping the vest to prevent the shirt from forming pockets of water.
  In all cases, unless you are exceptionally strong, never try to undress completely.
  It is even better to keep all ones clothes than to expose oneself to fatigue or completely exhaust oneself by wanting to quit.

418. When the current is too strong, do not use ones strength to want to beat it, try to land downstream from the point where one is, or wait for help.
  To free oneself from a vortex or the embrace of aquatic plants, do not try to resist, but remain motionless and passive by floating for a sufficient time.

II. - Rescuing a person in danger.
419. The first duty of a rescuer is to act with extreme rapidity, for any loss of time can be fatal.
The rescue is relatively easy if the person needing help is still [a water flower :D ] floating.
Just approach and seize the person using one of the methods listed earlier, then wait for help or swim to a favorable place.

420. In all circumstances the most practical and safest way is to approach from behind and seize the person by the arm or under the armpit without him noticing. In this way, the rescuer avoids being caught.
  In the case where the person to be helped turns around and tries to seize the rescuer, he immediately escapes and returns once again from behind a few instants later.
  If the rescuer has been seized, he frees himself one of the ways indicated earlier under the title "Defense of the caught rescuer”. As a last resort, if he believes the situation too dangerous for himself, he does not hesitate to choke the person or make him lose consciousness.

421. The rescue becomes more difficult when the person has gone under, without reappearing at the surface.
  If he has disappeared from the rescuer’s view, the rescuer must be guided to do his search by the air bubbles that indicate the exact location of the submersion. He dives below or above the bubbles along the direction of the current. If there is no clear indication on the location of the disappearance, he explores the depths by performing repetitive dives.

422. The rescuer has no fear of being seized by a completely submerged person.
  The moment he does not reappear, he has completely lost consciousness or is at least suffocated because he no longer has any force.

423. When one is surprised fully dressed when rescue is needed, do not lose valuable time to undress completely, especially if the course is to make is small.
  Get rid of just the most annoying things: shoes and overcoat.
  Adjust the trousers well at the belt, so as not to risk having your legs immobilized.

III. - Caring for drowned people. NOTE: METHODS HAVE CHANGED IN 100 YEARS. THESE METHODS ARE INCLUDED FOR COMPLETION AND AS HISTORICAL CURIOSITY.

424. When the drowned person is removed from the water run in order, the following maneuvers:
  1° Lay the drowned on the back or slightly to the side, horizontally or head slightly higher than the feet;
  2° Loosen clothing promptly at the waist and chest;
  3° Clear the mouth and nose of mucus that may be present. Keep the mouth open, by putting an object such as knife handle, a piece of wood, cork, etc. between the teeth if needed
  4° Kneel behind the head of the drowned, grab his wrists and make him perform artificial respirations. For this, strongly press the wrists over the lower ribs, then pull them beyond the head in order to send arms outstretched in the extension of the trunk, either directly or laterally (Fig. 204).
  Perform artificial respiratory movements at the normal  rate of regular respiratory movements, 15 to 20 per minute, which corresponds on average to 2 seconds for elevation and 2 seconds for lowering.
  The most practical way to observe this cadence is to regulate it by yourself, coinciding the elevation and lowering movements with your inhalations and exhalations.


FIG 204 – GIVING AID TO A DROWNED PERSON
Using artificial respiratory movements.
  Strongly press the wrists of the drowned on his lower ribs and then bring up the extended arms beyond the head along the trunk extension.

  5° If after 4 to 5 minutes breathing is not restored, stop the movement of raising and lowering the arms and replace it with the traction of the tongue.
  To do this, seize the tongue of the drowned with a handkerchief, a towel, a piece of cloth, etc. and pull it quite energetically, then let it back naturally (Fig. 205).
  The traction must be performed, like the arm movements, at the regular rhythm of breathing, 15 to 20 times per minute.
  6° Once breathing is restored, undress the drowned completely, massage or rub with cloths, blankets or just dry clothes to revive him.
  Then, wrap or dress or with dry effects and transport if necessary. 
 

FIG 205 - GIVING AID TO A DROWNED PERSON
  The first rescuer performs the artificial respiratory movements with the arms; the second executes rhythmic traction of the tongue, the third rubs the drowned with dry clothing. Movement of arm elevation must exactly coincide with the outward pulling of the tongue.

7° Do not stop too early or despair by giving aid to the drowned. Prolong artificial respiration and tongue pulls as long as possible, even for several hours in some cases.

425. What has been said relates to the case of a single person in the presence of a drowning.
If several people are gathered, the most experienced of them must take the lead to do the maneuvers.
  Four more people are the most needed for urgent care and a greater number would interfere with each other.
  The first person involved stripping the drowned;
  A second performs artificial respiratory movements with the arms;
  A third does rhythmic pulls of the tongue;
  Finally, a fourth may help first to undress and massage the drowned.
  The second and third persons must coordinate their movements in terms of rhythm and take care to ensure that movements of elevation of the arms exactly coincide with the outward tongue pull (Fig. 205).
  Treatments that have been shown for drownings also apply to the asphyxiated.

VIII. REQUIREMENTS AND RELATIVE PRECAUTIONS ON THE GROUP SWIMMING EXERCISES

426. Swimming should be a regular exercise, subject to the same rules as other gymnastic exercises, and not free swimming.

427. For a group teaching to proceed, it is necessary that the students who do not know how to swim are able to tread water as soon as possible.
  Begin by demonstrating, then making them properly do on dry land, movements of the regular breaststroke and backstroke to all students who can not swim.
  When these movements are well understood and done, 3 or 4 sessions at most, with a capable teacher or instructor, it is enough for the students to tread water.
  Students who know how to swim very well assist the masters for the first instruction of incapable students.
« Last Edit: September 12, 2009, 02:37:51 AM by Gregg »

Offline Gregg HIPK

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Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
« Reply #43 on: September 13, 2009, 03:44:25 PM »
Added the info on treading water :D

Now it's time to go out and play!

turtlekarma

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Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
« Reply #44 on: September 13, 2009, 03:57:55 PM »
Gregg, what is all this stuff?  is this the kind of exercises you do?

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Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
« Reply #45 on: September 14, 2009, 12:34:43 PM »
This is the 100 year old training manual for "Methode Naturelle". MN was one of the influences on parkour. This edition of MN had 8 "essential utility exercises": walking, running, jumping, climbing, lifting, throwing, defense, and swimming. Later versions added quadrupedal movement [QM] and balance. Erwan LeCorre updated MN, modified it, and added carrying and catching, to make MovNattm.

I do MN inspired workouts, and have been taking the MN tests every month, just for "fun".  ;D

I had translated the Foreword, Jumping and Climbing and a different Hebert book on MN over at HIpk. Pilou from DC came out with a .pdf that was much better translated. That's why I don't have J&C chapters here any more.

Pilou added Lifting and Throwing. I'm doing the Expose [theory], part of Defense, part of Swimming. I hope to finish this week.

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Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
« Reply #46 on: September 14, 2009, 03:33:07 PM »
End of CHAPTER IV, SWIMMING.  ;D Just a few hundred loose ends to tie up and we'll be DONE!

  This instruction is done, either along a dock, taking the student by a strap fitted with a rope, or simply taking the student's hand when the water is shallow enough to stand in.


FIG 206. GROUP TRAINING OF SWIMMING EXERCISES – The start of a complete session: Sudden immersion by the head or feet.

428. The program of daily work depends on both atmospheric conditions and students’ diverse skills.
  Typically, a session of collective work always includes the sequential performance of the following exercises:
  1°. A dive by the head or feet (Fig. 206);
  2° A dive under water;
  3° Group exercises together with progressive courses in which one uses the diverse ways to swim, float, etc (fig. 207 and 208)
 4° One or more other special exercises under the guidance of the master;
  5° A final speed race (fig. 211).


FIG 207 – MASS SWIMMING EXERCISES – Mass exercises by separate groups. During the work in the water, the swimmers are always “buddied up” in pairs, a strong swimmer with a weak one.

429. The group exercises are all very attractive and, moreover, very useful for developing assurance and ability of the swimmers.
  For their performance the teachers make them take regular formations, the main ones:
  Single file line;
  Front line;
  Swimming in circles.
  They move from one formation to another, doing a half-turn, facing right, left, either swimming breaststroke, or backstroke, or treading water.

430. In order to get the students used to swimming with only their legs to help them, have them do many:
  1°. Single file lines on the belly (Fig. 209), and the back (Fig. 210) (each student placing his hands on the hips, shoulders or under the armpits of the one in front of him);
  2° Front courses on the front and back, each student placing a hand on the shoulder of his neighbor.
431. While working in the water, students should always be "buddied-up" two by two, a strong swimmer with a weaker (Fig. 207). Whatever kind of exercise, these two students are always next to each other, the safeguards and security are enhanced.
 

FIG 208 – MASS TRAINING OF SWIMMING EXERCISES – Parade of an entire company of Marines in instruction groups.
The Marines are completely dressed and the two first groups also have rifles and bandoliers. On the dock, the swim masters are always ready to rescue.
  Some of the strongest swimmers are swimming clothed and secured by a strap whose end is always held by another swimmer or firmly fixed.


Fig. 209. – GROUP TRAINING OF SWIMMING EXERCISES -  A  single line in swimming on the stomach.
  Each swimmer puts his hands on the shoulders of the one preceding.


FIG 210. – GROUP TRAINING OF SWIMMING EXERCISES – A single line of swimming backstroke.
  Each swimmer puts his hands on the shoulders or under the armpits of the one in front of him.


FIG 211 – MASS TRAINING OF SWIMMING EXERCISES. – The end of a complete session. A speed race over a short distance.

432. The baths are taken before meals or at least three hours later.
  The most detailed provisions and also the most practical are always taken before the bath to ensure prompt rescue in case of need.
  One puts, in an appropriate place, a sufficient number of monitors equipped with buoys, ropes, poles, etc..
  They should never lose sight of the students and always be ready to help in the slightest apprehension of danger. Their place is preferably on the shore or in surveillance boats.
  Throughout the swimming exercises, the greatest silence and most perfect order must be strictly observed.
  Only the voices of teachers and instructors should be heard. It is the only way to prevent irreparable injuries that can occur almost instantly.

IX. —PERFORMANCES CHARACTERIZING THE “ABLE SWIMMER” AND THE “MASTER SWIMMER” * (lifeguard)

  (*) These performances, which we established after many experiments at the School of Marine Riflemen were published regulations in the Navy. By Ministerial Dispatch April 4, 1907, a certificate of "master swimmer" is given to any sailor who meets the conditions outlined below.

433. To be considered an "able swimmer”, a subject must perform the following minimum performances:
  1° A course of 100 meters in 3 minutes (no minimum time limit);
  2° A dive underwater for 10 seconds, the body completely submerged.
  These performances correspond to the zero level of swimming tests contained in the form of observing the results.

434. A "master swimmer" not only knows about the different methods of swimming, but also possesses the physical skills necessary to perform a difficult rescue.
  The master swimmer must be above all an excellent diver. This is an essential quality:
  To search mid-water for a person in danger of drowning;
  To keep the head of the person he rescues above water, if necessary by sacrificing his own breathing.

Other qualities that the master swimmer should have are:
  Speed, resistance to fatigue and cold, the courage to jump into the water, the ease to move and to recognize in midwater, the ability to seize and tow a person in danger, and some competence to treat the drowned.

435. The diving performance of a master swimmer must not be less than 60 seconds if one wants to have a subject who counts in an emergency.
  This performance proves excellent condition of internal organs: lungs and heart, and a high tolerance of the circulatory and respiratory functions.
  It gives the certainty that the subject who has reached that at least one time can provide at any time, even if he remained long without exercise or swimming, repeated dives of 15 to 30 seconds on average, which is sufficient in practice.
  The performance of 60 seconds should be attained after a methodical training of several weeks. It obviously can not usually be provided by subjects in a condition of constant training.
  Subjects who train to become master swimmers must suffer a serious medical visit with a careful and special examination of the lungs, heart and ears.
  One or more master swimmers are essential for monitoring group swimming exercises.

436. The performances required of a master swimmer are the following (Water temperature is assumed 17 to 18 degrees C = 62.6 to 64.4 degrees F):
  1° Speed test: 100 meters in 2 minutes.
  2° Endurance test: 1000 meters in 30 minutes (1)
  3° Dive from a height of 5 meters (*).
  4° Stay submerged 60 seconds under water, the body entirely submerged.
  5° Being clothed (sweater, shirt, jacket, pants and shoes) to pick up in 3 meters of water a stone or iron weight of 5 kg (2).
  6° Being dressed (as above) run, with a dummy or a specially appointed man, the rescue exercise of a person in danger of drowning and cross a 25 meter distance.
  7° Justify the theoretical and practical knowledge of the care to the drowned.

(1) By adopting the same process of progression and the same notation as the tests determining the results given in Chapter IX of the 1st part, the performance scale of the 1000m swim is as follows:
30 minutes = 0 point
29               = 1
28               = 2
27               = 3
26               = 4
25               = 5 etc..
(2) In shallow water, preferably (3 meters at most).
(3) In slightly cloudy water, preferably.
« Last Edit: September 14, 2009, 03:39:59 PM by Gregg »

turtlekarma

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Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
« Reply #47 on: September 15, 2009, 03:34:48 AM »
oh I see, so parkour's kind of a side (just for fun) kind of thing for you?  And your main focus is on natural movement?  geez guy that's lots of material to go through... do translate it or was it written in english?

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Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
« Reply #48 on: September 15, 2009, 12:27:22 PM »
Everything here I translated from French. It was a lot of material. Don't blame me ;D

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Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
« Reply #49 on: September 15, 2009, 03:29:46 PM »
This is quite something!! I see I'll have many more weeks of work to get all the defense and swimming in my paper version...
Gregg, you did a titan's job.

I really feel now that my translations pale in front of yours, which are much more accurate. I'll keep editing down, though, so people with low enthusiasm for reading hav a chance to chew through the meaty parts ;D

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Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
« Reply #50 on: September 15, 2009, 06:05:25 PM »
Edit like crazy. There are still a couple points I'm not sure of - so hoping the missing page 34 clears that up.

I was more literal because I had to be. When we started this, I could tell when the Google Translation was way off, but that's about it. I hadn't used French since high school, but I'd done similar translating... Thank God for on-line French-English dictionaries.

The pictures help a lot in the swimming and defense. It would have been a huge pain to translate all the details on "This is how you hold your feet, hands, and arm motions."
« Last Edit: September 16, 2009, 12:19:00 PM by Gregg »

turtlekarma

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Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
« Reply #51 on: September 16, 2009, 01:22:03 AM »
bad ass gregg, how many languages r u fluent in...is english you 1st language?  How old were you when you started learning them?  I liked the wrestling ones you posted by the way.

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Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
« Reply #52 on: September 16, 2009, 12:17:59 PM »
Sometimes I'm fluent in English. Nothing else. Languages are sneaky - if I don't use them, they hide in the dark corners of my mind, and jump out when I don't expect them...

My main focus isn't "natural movement": I like to play outside. I like lots of variety. I don't have much free time or money... MN fits all that, and gives me a solid way to measure my progression.

I keep experimenting, playing, reading...


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Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
« Reply #53 on: September 25, 2009, 11:51:25 PM »
By the way, this thread should be stickied or something.. it would be a shame to see it plunge into the depths of the forum!!

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Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
« Reply #54 on: September 26, 2009, 10:05:14 AM »
Well, right now there isn't a ton of stuff in this section. If it looks like a problem, I'll sticky both books.

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Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
« Reply #55 on: October 08, 2009, 05:17:50 PM »
Pilou's given me permission to cut and paste from his .pdf... so I'm hoping to have that all up for you guys by maybe next week: The basic learning exercises, plus walking, running, jumping, climbing, lifting and throwing.

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Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
« Reply #56 on: October 08, 2009, 07:32:59 PM »
Sorry to be so confusing and out of sequence: Here we go... I'll add photos later. Thanks Pilou!

Elementary Exercises
[translator's note: from here on, the translation reproduces the full original text, unless stated.]

1. The straight posture and the fundamental arm positions
Straight posture: the neck is vertical; the chin is drawn back to force the neck backward; the
shoulders are low and thrown back; the core is tight; the hips go forward; arms are loose, hands
extended; legs are joined, feet at 60 degrees (first two pictures).

To get there: rotate shoulders backwards, straighten the neck and move the chin back, tighten the
belly, straighten the legs, extend the arms and hands down (third picture) .

A poor posture is presented in the last picture.



The four fundamental arm positions: 1. hands to the hips; 2. hands to the back of the neck; 3.
hands to the shoulders; 4. hands to the chest.
1. Hands to the hips: from the straight posture, bring the palms on top of the hips, fingers facing
forward and thumbs back.
2. Hands to the back of the neck (first and second picture): from the straight posture, move arms
laterally to bring hands to the back of the neck, palms flat. Bring elbows and chin back to
maintain the straight posture.
3. Hands to the shoulders (third picture): from the straight posture, bend forearms without moving
arms or shoulders. Hands should curve slightly to touch the shoulders, elbows are back and
aligned with the body.
4. Hands to the chest (last picture): from the straight posture, move arms laterally, elbows back,
forearms bent, hands flat facing down, thumbs touching the chest.
To get there: the arms position derive from the straight posture: rotate the shoulders back and put the
hands to the correct position, straighten neck and chin, core and legs, bring shoulders and elbows as
far back as possible.
Straight posture, wider stance: some moves require starting with the legs separated. Start with any
of the four fundamental arm positions, then move left leg further to the side while bending slightly the
right leg. Center the body, which should keep the straight posture all along.


2. Arm exercises
Unless stated otherwise, all moves start from the straight posture.
1. Raising the arms vertically: Both arms: raise both arms forward at the same time, keeping them straight. Arms are parallel,
palms facing each other, slightly forced beyond vertical toward the back. Go back to initial pose. One arm at a time: raise one arm as before, keeping the other one as far back as possible, palm facing back. Go back to initial pose.


2. Raising the arms laterally: raise both arms laterally while rotating the shoulders back to bring the
palms up. Continue all the way to vertical position, then back to horizontal arms. Rotate the shoulders
to get back to the initial pose. The lateral position of the arms should be slightly forced beyond the line
of the shoulders.


3. Raising vertically and lowering laterally the arms: bring the arms up as in first movement, bring
them down as in second, including the rotation of the shoulders.


4. Raising the arms back, laterally and vertically: bring the arms up and back as far as possible,
palms facing each other, move then laterally to a horizontal position while rotating the shoulders to
bring the palms up,take the arms straight to vertical, palms facing each other, go back to initial pose
bringing the arms down in front.
5. Vertical extension of the arms: from the hands to the shoulders posture, simultaneously or alternatively raise the
arms straight and toward the back, then go back to initial pose.


6. Lateral extension of forearms with outside rotation: from the hands to the chest posture, extend the arms laterally,
palms facing down, as far back from the line of the shoulders as possible, then rotate the arms to bring the palms up,
then go back to initial pose.


The arm movements can be done with the hands following the arms, open with joined fingers, but also with open hands, spread fingers, closed hands, thumb on top, hand flexed or extended.


3. Leg exercises
Leg exercises are done with the arms in various positions, by default we are assuming the hands to
the hips position.


1. Heel raises: raise the body as high as possible keeping the legs straight, going on the toes.
2. Lifting the leg straight forward: lift the leg straight in front, with extended foot, bringing the rest of the body
slightly back, but keeping the straight posture.
3. Lifting the leg laterally: lift the leg laterally, with extended foot, bringing the rest of the body slightly to the
other side, still straight.
4. Lifting the leg backward: lift the leg straight to the back as far as possible, keeping the rest of the body straight and
slightly forward.
5. Lifting the leg forward, laterally and back: lift the straight leg forward, bring it laterally, then back.
6. Lifting the thigh and extending the leg: lift the thigh with bent leg, extended foot, then extend leg,
then go straight back or bend the leg again.
7. Lifting the thigh laterally: lift the thigh with bent leg, then extend leg to straight, then go back.
8. Squatting, feet together: going on the toes, squat down opening the knees, keeping the rest of the body straight, then
back up.
9. Squatting, feet apart: going on the toes, squat down opening the knees, keeping the rest of the body straight, then
back up.
[translator's note: these squatting postures are very different from modern squats with the weight on the heels, feet
separated, butt back, and the knees never bending beyond the toes. These squats work different muscles, and may strain
more the knees.]
10. Leaning forward: bring left leg in front, both feet facing out, bend left knee forward keeping the
right leg straight, bending the whole body forward. Back leg, torso and head make a straight line. Go
back and switch legs. The left leg can go obliquely to the left, but shoulders must stay straight.
11. Leaning backward: bring left foot behind, both feet facing out, bend left knee backward, leaning
backward and keeping the right leg and rest of the body in straight line. Same to the right; the back leg
can go obliquely.
12. Leaning laterally: bring left foot further left, heels on the same line, feet facing out, then lean laterally by flexing the left
leg and keeping the right leg and upper body straight. Same to the right, but no oblique variant.
All the leg exercises can be done with the arms in any of the four arm positions, alternating arm and leg exercises in a
single repetition or combining arm and leg exercises simultaneously.

[translator's note: in these moves, be careful to keep the knee straight above the toes, and no further.]

4. Suspension exercises
Suspension exercises are done on various objects: bars, beams, tree branches, horizontal ropes, etc. In all cases, the
arms must be further than shoulder width apart; hands can be facing in, out, or one in and one out. In straight suspensions,
the arms are fully extended, legs are joined, feet and neck are extended.


1. Jumping to suspension: jump up into a straight suspension, breathe a few times, then jump down with a good
landing.
2. Widening the grip: in suspension, do a half pull-up to widen the grip as much as possible, then another one to go
back to normal, both hands at the same time or one after the other.
3. Pull-up: in suspension, do a pull-up to bring the head above the bar, keeping the elbows aligned
with the body. Go down by slowly extending the arms. This can be scaled down by using a low bar,
feet touching the ground in front of the bar.
4. L-sit: in suspension, bring the thighs up, legs bent, feet extended, then extend the legs straight into
L-sit, then back.
5. L-sit up: in suspension, bring the straight legs up from L-sit into a vertical position, then back.
6. L-sit with wide legs: in suspension, bring the legs straight into a L-sit, then spread them as much as possible while
staying horizontal, then back.
Suspension exercises can also be done moving forward or backward on a long bar or parallel bars. These can be done with extended arms, bent arms, straight legs, or in L-sit position.

5. Plank exercises [Support exercises]
In plank, the hands are flat on the ground, slightly beyond shoulder width, fingers pointing forward, arms straight. The
legs are extended, toes touching the ground, the entire body straight. Planks can be made easier by resting the hands on
an elevated object, or harder on resting the feet on an elevated object.



1. From standing to plank: three different methods:a) bend the legs and put both hands on the ground in front of the knees,
shoot feet back, shoot feet back in, stand up; b) bend the legs and put both hands on the ground in front of the knees, shoot
hands forward keeping the feet at the same place, bend arms and push back, stand up; c) put hands forward and fall straight
into plank position, go back using one of the previous methods.
2. Wide arm plank: from plank, push up and send the arms as wide as possible, then push up and
send them back in. This move can be made harder by sending the arms as far forward as possible.
3. One arm plank: from plank, spread out both legs, bring all the weight of the body on one arm, hold the other one to the
side of the body or straight above the head.
4. Push-up: from plank, push down to get as close to the ground as possible without touching, then push back up.
5. Side plank: from plank, lift left arm while rotating the body, put left hand in one of the fundamental
positions or perform one of the arm exercises. The rest of the body keeps the straight posture. Same
on the right side.
6. Side plank with leg up: from side plank position above, lift the left leg up on the side, then down.
Plank exercises can include quadrupedal motion exercises as well.

[translator's note: this early edition did not consider quadrupedal motion as a separate subject, thus it is entirely missing. The “quadrupédie” booklet contains much more, as do Hébert's later books on all the fundamental movements.]

6. Balance exercises
Like the leg exercises, balance exercises can be done with the arms in any arm positions. By default
we assume the hands to the hips.



1. Balancing the leg forward: from straight posture, extend left leg in front, leaning back and bending the other leg as much
as possible, then go back. The left leg, torso and head must stay in a straight line. Same on the right side.
2. Balancing the leg backward: from straight posture, extend the left leg backward, leaning forward to maintain a straight line
and bending the right leg, then go back. Same on right side.
3. Balancing the leg to the side: from straight posture, extend the left leg to the side, leaning to the right with the rest
of the body and bending the right leg, then go back. Same on right side.
As with the leg exercises, the balancing exercises can be done with arm exercises, simultaneously or one after the
other.
[translator's note: like the legs exercises, balancing can be more strenuous on the knees than it
appears. Be mindful of keeping the supporting leg as straight as possible, and never force a
movement past your balance point.]

7. Hopping exercises
Hopping exercises are done hands on the hips, jumping mostly in place, feet landing on the toes,
open. The rest of the body keeps the straight posture.



1. Hopping on joined legs: bend the legs slightly to jump up, extending the feet, land on the toes and
jump right back up, bending the legs as little as possible and keeping a continuous pace. Work on
jumping higher and faster.
2. Hopping and spreading the legs to the side: when hopping up, spread the legs slightly while in
the air and land with legs apart, then join them back at the next hop.
3. Hopping and spreading the legs front and back: when hopping up, bring right leg forward and
left leg back before landing, then switch the legs at the next hop.
4. Hopping with crossed legs: when hopping up, cross the legs, bent, before landing, then switch at
the next hop.
5. Squatting hops: go into a squat, then hop while keeping the squat form.
6. Tuck jumps: when hopping up, tuck the knees up as far as possible, then shoot the legs back
down before landing.

8. Core exercises
Like leg exercises, core exercises can be done with the arms in a variety of poses. We assume
straight posture, hands to the hips by default.


 
1. Bending forward: bend the torso forward at the hips, back straight, legs straight.
2. Bending backward: bend the torso back, keeping it straight.
3. Bending to the side: with spread legs, bend the torso to the side, keeping everything straight and in the same plane.
4. Bending forward and back: with spread legs, bend the torso forward, then all the way back, then straight.
5. Torsion with bending: with spread legs, rotate the torso to the left and bend forward, then back
straight, then to the other side.
6. Full rotation: with spread legs, take the side bending position, then move directly to the backward
bending position, then to the other side, then forward. The line of the shoulders should stay parallel to
the line of the hips.

Core exercises can also be done with all sorts of arm exercises, but also with varying leg postures, or with the
body horizontal in any orientation. Core exercises can also be combined with head movements: bending forward, backward, to the side, torsions, rotations. As head and core moves are similar, it is good to use the same groups together.

9. Breathing exercises
Breathing exercises are done like arm movements, but at a slower pace, breathing in while bringing
the arms up and out while lowering them.



1. Breathing with forward arm motion: breathe in and out while bringing the arms up and down in front.
2. Breathing with lateral arm motion: breathe in and out while bringing the arms up and down laterally.
3. Breathing with forward and lateral motion: breathe in and out while bringing the arms up in front
and down laterally.
4. Breathing with backward and lateral motion: breathe in and out while bringing the arms as far
back as possible, then laterally up, then down in front.
5. Breathing with vertical motion: from hands to the shoulders, breathe in and out while bringing the
arms up and down vertically.
6. Breathing with horizontal motion: from hands to the chest, breathe in and out while extending the
arms out and in horizontally.

Breathing exercises are improved by going on the toes when breathing in and back on the flat of the
foot when breathing out.

10. Exercises done with special equipment
Movements of the arms, legs and core can be done with special equipment such as weights,
dumbbells, elastic bands, clubs, benches, bars, etc. Although these are not necessary, and ample
muscular development comes from executing the above motions freehand and to the fullest, they can
be useful to bring variety to the exercises, they enhance muscular development in the arms and
shoulders (weights), various muscle groups (elastic bands), or the forearms (clubs). Static structures
like benches, bars, provide an anchor to fix parts of the body while providing more amplitude or more
localization for a given exercise. Using large weights is however not recommended, as it results in an
excessive muscle growth not matched by the development of the rest of the body. Weights are not
recommended or useful for children.

« Last Edit: April 01, 2010, 03:21:24 PM by Gregg »

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Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
« Reply #57 on: October 08, 2009, 07:46:53 PM »
Practical Exercises

1. Walking
Walking is the most natural means of locomotion, the most economical, improves endurance, leg strength, and promotes good breathing and blood circulation.
Walking is done by moving the legs alternatively, pushing with the foot and extending the leg, one leg after the other. When
walking, the body stays in constant contact with the ground with one foot, and with both feet at transition times.
A walk is a succession of steps, the length and the cadence of step determine its speed. At low speed, length of step
increases naturally with an increase of cadence, but stops and even decreases when the cadence is too high. Experience
shows that the pace where the length of step is the highest corresponds to a cadence of about 140 steps a minute in the adult. The fastest walk is not done at this longest step but at the slightly faster cadence of 170 steps a minute. On the other hand, a pace of 110 to 130 steps a minute is more economical, allowing for more efficient long distance walks.
To improve speed in walking, it is better to work on increasing the length of step rather than the cadence. The mechanics of walking are acquired from natural practice and don't need to be taught.
The muscles used in walks can be strengthened by:
– walks on the toes or the heels,
– walks with very long steps,
– very fast walks on short distances,
– slow walks with elevation of the thigh to horizontal and extension of the leg forward.
Posture is improved by maintaining one of the fundamental arm positions while walking. Breathing is made regular by aligning it
with a fixed number of steps, usually 5 or 6, and can be amplified by breathing exercises and songs. Walking should be
done on all types of terrain, in cities and on the countryside, over hills, into fields, etc.
Endurance walks: long walks will require a slow pace, under 130 or 140 steps a minute. The walking posture should be as follows: the chest is slightly tilting forward; the foot touches the ground without shock, almost flat, heel first; the front leg is slightly bent when the foot reaches the ground; the contact point on the foot travels from the heel all the way to the toes; the rear leg is straight,
the upper body straight with the chest open; the arms are slightly bent and swinging lightly, opposite to the legs.
Speed walks: faster walks are limited to short distances. Any walking pace about or beyond 170 steps a minute is pointless, as running will then become more efficient, or running and walking in turn. There are two possible ways of walking at a fast pace. The first is the previously described posture, but increasing the forward tilt of the body and the bending of the front leg with the increased cadence. At high speed, a powerful push off the toes of the back leg reduces the time of two feet contact with the ground, making a move closer to running, the body being very forward, as if falling with each step. The second method is to stay as vertical as possible, with straight legs. The speed is gained from a faster movement of the leg from back to front. The fast motion of the legs and the shock
of the foot hitting the ground makes this method very tiring. The first method is practical in all occasions, in particular when carrying something. The second method is very unpractical, and only to be used in races.

2. Running
Running is the fastest means of locomotion, and the most important of physical exercises. Running involves many muscles of the body, improves breathing and endurance, and develops strength and agility of the lower limbs. When running, the body is projected forward, each foot touching the ground in turn. There is only one foot on the ground at most, and the body is suspended between steps. Indeed, like a walk is a series of steps, a run is a series of jumps, from one foot to the other one. The running speed is the product of the length of the jump by the cadence. The faster the cadence, the longer the jumps; unlike in walking there is no decrease of the jump length with very fast paces. Like in walking, there are more efficient cadences in running: about 170 to 200 jumps a minute for a
sustained endurance pace, up to 230 for a faster run, and no more than around 350 for very short sprints. Cadences lower than 170 jumps a minute are particularly bad, as the body uses a lot of energy to cover a rather short distance, and the slow pace induces a wasteful vertical jumping motion.
The length of the jump depends on the strength and direction of the impulsion from the leg in contact with the ground, exactly like a one-legged length jump. To improve the length of jump, it is important to limit the amount of vertical momentum while reaching further forward, which is done by pushing the leg back as far as possible. The foot of the leg reaching forward should land flat, with the
leg bent, so as to be faster past the vertical position, able to propel the body. By throwing the front leg forward, one could also make a longer jump, but the leg is further from vertical and the heel hits the ground, inducing repetitive shocks.
Touching the ground with just the toes reduces the stride and make the calves work harder. A flat contact brings the leg directly to the vertical position while absorbing the shock of the jump.

[translator's note: there is no usual distinction made in French between the toe area and the ball of the
feet; instructions to land on the toes in running and jumping are likely to mean to land on the ball of the
feet or on the toes and ball of the feet.]

The work of the legs is only secondary in running, the value of a runner depends first on his breathing.
A run should be a long succession of deep cyclic breathing movements. At the fastest paces, such breathing is impossible, this is why races at maximum speed cannot last more than 20 seconds, corresponding to about 100 to 150 meters.
Running is a great way to increase endurance, but one must be careful of adapting the exercise to the fitness of the runners, especially limiting the length of faster runs. Like walking, running is a natural movement acquired by practice. The muscles can be trained further by running on the toes, or by running slowly with long jumps. The breathing is made regular by aligning it with a fixed number of
jumps, always the same (about 5 to 8).
Endurance runs: runs of medium cadence at 170 to 200 jumps a minute are best for long distances or when it is unnecessary to rush and tire oneself much. The best posture is as follows: the body slightly tilted forward; the foot reaching the ground flat, without shock; the leading leg is bent and vertical; the back leg is fully extended; the arms are bent and swinging smoothly; arms and front leg
bending more with increased speed. Breathing is aligned with the cadence, with deep, long breaths. Avoid any vertical hopping motion, overextending the front leg, contacting the ground with the heel, rotating the body, breathing fast or irregularly. In long runs, start and finish always slower, finishing up with walking, core and breathing exercises.
Speed runs: faster runs go beyond 200 jumps a minute, and can become sustained only with training.
Maximum speed runs can reach 350 jumps, and must be trained on short distances of 30 to 150 meters. The most efficient posture is as follows: the body starts bent forward but go back to vertical after a few steps and stays vertical, even bending backward at the end to slow down the pace; the impulse of the back leg is as strong as possible; the front leg is bent lower, foot still reaching the
ground flat; the arms are swinging more vigorously. A great exercise to improve the body's ability for sudden, violent effort
is the start of speed races. Races can be done with prepared or unprepared start. For unprepared starts, one can stand
straight, sitting or lying down, facing any direction. At the signal, jump to face the correct direction and start the run In
prepared runs, the body is bent forward, legs apart and ready, weight on the front or back leg. Speed runs are the most
practical to train as a quick means of transportation or a rescue exercise.

3. Jumping
Jumping consists in giving an impulse of the body to go over a space or an obstacle in one jump.
Jumps strengthen the lower limbs and the core, train the legs to absorb impact, improve agility and balance. Applied jumps over an obstacle also work on fear, improving confidence, focus and readiness.
Jumping can be decomposed into four parts: the preparation, the impulse, the suspension and the fall.
The preparation consists in bending and loading the legs while sending the arms back; the impulse is the explosive extension of the legs while bringing the arms up and forward; the suspension starts when the feet leave the ground, the legs are brought to the best position to overcome the obstacle, while the arms go down; the fall consists in absorbing the impact from the jump, when touching the
ground, feet reaching and legs bending to absorb, arms used to maintain balance. The movement of the arms is very important in the jump and help get a greater impulsion and regain balance during the fall. Training should start with long jumps and high jumps, first without and then with a run-up. Follow this with a very slow progression into deep jumps, and make sure to work on a soft surface. Applied jumps with real obstacles should only occur when the legs are strong enough and the fall sufficiently trained to be safe.

Unlike walking and running, learning to jump can be decomposed, as in these three preparatory exercises:
1. Preparation and impulse: with the arms up and vertical, hands into fists, bend the legs while going on the toes, knees, toes and heels joined, lowering the arms straight to bring them behind. Then explode up (staying on the ground) while bringing the arms back to vertical.
2. Fall: bend the legs while going on the toes, heels together, knees and toes open, arms up and vertical, then go quickly back to standing, lowering the arms. In practice, the fall is not decomposed, the arms are only brought up enough to bring balance back. The legs should resist the fall to avoid landing too low, but never land with straight legs.
3. Chain all four movements: preparation, impulse, then jump up and land as in the first two exercises.

Jumps with and without a run-up
1. Standing high jumps going over an obstacle: start facing the obstacle, feet together, at a distance about half the height of
the obstacle. Bring the arms in front, hands closed, then bend the legs going on the toes and bring the arms back (preparation). Extend the legs and bring arms up (impulse), go over the obstacle tucking the legs in, keeping the arms up. As soon as the obstacle is passed (suspension), extend the feet toward the ground and lower the arms. Touch the ground with the toes (fall), legs bent without excess, arms balancing.
Going onto an obstacle: perform the preparation and impulse as above. Land on the obstacle, legs tucked, arms up. In this type of jump, there no real suspension or fall happening, one can arrive fully squatting on the obstacle.

2. Standing long jump: start from the edge of the obstacle or open space to pass. Bring the arms in front, hands closed, then bend the legs going on the toes and bring the arms back (preparation). Tilt the body forward, then extend the legs and bring arms up (impulse). Give the impulse at the moment where the body starts to fall forward. The bring the arms down (suspension). The feet touch the ground together in front of the body, heels first (fall). It is not necessary to tuck the legs as much in long jumps, only the thighs must be bent. Landing on the heels is acceptable as the momentum is mostly horizontal. However, one must be careful if the ground is slippery.

3. Depth jumps
  Simple jump, facing forward: start facing forward at the edge of the obstacle, squat to lower the height of the fall and put both hands on the edge (preparation). Leave the obstacle without a jump but bringing the body forward horizontally, so as to avoid falling straight down (impulse). During the suspension, reach down with the legs, and keep the arms lowered. Touch the ground with the toes, resisting with the legs to avoid squatting too low.
  Simple jump, facing backward: start at the edge of the obstacle, facing backward. Do everything as before, being careful to push away with the hands when leaving the obstacle, and to keep the body tilted forward to avoid falling on the back upon landing.

  Forward jump, sitting: sit at the edge of the obstacle, legs down. Put both hands on the edge, fingers facing forward, leaning forward. Push away with the arms while throwing the legs forward. If the obstacle allows it, swing the legs a few times before jumping.
  Backward jump, hands pressed: from a holding position with the hands on the obstacle, bend the arms to get on the stomach, then throw the legs backward. If the obstacle allows it, swing the legs a few times before jumping.
  Vertical jump, from a suspension: if suspended by the hands to a bar, swing the legs forward, then when they go backward do a small push up with the arms and open the hands right away. Avoid dropping from a static position, as it makes it difficult to regain balance. If swinging already, the best is to let go when the legs are going backward. If jumping when the legs are going forward, send the
upper body strongly forward to avoid falling on the back.

Vertical jump, from hanging to a wall: take one hand off the wall and bring it at waist level, push strongly with hand and leg away from the wall.
Depth jumps done from a height or on hard surfaces are dangerous for the feet, the ankles and the knees. It is necessary to train progressively from lower to higher jumps. On a hard surface like stone, earth, wood floor, jumps of about 2 meters already put considerable strain on the feet. On a prepared ground like sand or well turned earth, a trained person may jump up to 4 meters without harm.

4. Running high jump
Jump over an obstacle: the jump is done on one foot, after a run-up of 5 to 10 meters. The upper body is vertical or slightly back. The arms are brought forward at the time of the jump, then the obstacle is passed either by bringing the legs bent under the hips, feet close to the thighs, or extending the feet in front, keeping the chest forward. Arms are kept up until the obstacle is passed, then lowered as the legs are extended down. Land on the toes, legs bent, arms balancing.

Jump onto an obstacle: start on one foot as above, then jump onto the obstacle with the legs bent, feet close to the hips, arms up. This type of jump is useful when what is beyond the obstacle is unknown.

Jump while maintaining the run: start on one foot, jump over the obstacle by passing the other leg first,
then the jumping leg. The first leg is very bent, knee up, the other leg to the side or under the body.
The chest is leaning forward during the jump. Land on the first leg, on the toes, then throw the jumping
leg forward to keep running.

5. Running long jump
with a long run: like the running high jump, this jump is done from one foot after a run. In this case, the run must be long enough to gain maximum speed, as the speed of the run determines the length of the jump. The chest is slightly forward during the jump, the legs are joined but don't need to be tucked. During the fall, the heels touch the ground first, the arms go down and back, and then forward and up again to regain balance.

With a single step: bring the left foot forward, bend the right leg and bring the weight of the body on the right leg while throwing
the arms back (preparation). Extend vigorously the right leg, then the left, while bringing the arms forward and up (impulse).
Bring the legs together during the suspension and land on the heels. This jump doesn't cover more distance than the standing
long jump, but is easier.

6. Side jump
standing side jump: stand close to the obstacle on the side, feet together. Bring the arms up and forward, then bend the legs while throwing the arms back (preparation). Extend the legs vigorously while bringing the arms up and forward and leaning toward the obstacle (impulse). Raise the legs straight one after the other, the one closest to the obstacle first.
The knee comes to meet the chest, still leaning toward the obstacle, arms up. After the obstacle, lower the arms (suspension). Land on both legs successively, on the toes (fall).

Standing long side jump: bring the arms to the side opposed to the jump, while leaning in the jumping direction with bent legs (preparation). Throw the arms in the jumping direction and extend the legs (impulse), land on the flat of the feet, legs
slightly bent, and go back up right away, arms balancing.

Running side jump: the run is almost parallel to the obstacle, the jump uses one leg. Assuming a jump to the right side, jump from the left foot, and pass the obstacle first with the right leg extended in front, then the left, arms up. After the obstacle, lower the arms and land on the toes of the feet, first the right then the left.

Depth side jump: proceed as in the depth jump forward or backward, far enough from the obstacle pushing away with the hand.

7. Combined jumps: any combination of jumps 1-6. Make sure to always land on the toes after any jump, even a long jump, every time the landing point is lower than the starting point. Combinations may include: high long jump, high depth jump, long depth jump, high long depth jump, long depth jump from sitting or hands pressed, long depth jump from a suspension.

Jumps with hands on the obstacle
1. Jump onto an obstacle
from standing: put both hands on the obstacle, jump while pressing from the wrists, land on the obstacle with both feet
between the arms.
from running: run up a few steps, jump from both feet, reach to put the hands on the obstacle and proceed as before.

2. Jump over the obstacle with legs on one side of the arms from standing: put both hands on the obstacle, jump while
pressing from the wrists, swing the legs to one side, remove the hand in front of the body and land on the other side.
from running: same move after a quick run-up, jumping from both feet
from a hand hold: bend the body forward on the hands, arm straight, then swing the legs back and forth and then over the
obstacle to the side as above.

3. Jump over the obstacle with one hand
from standing: stand sideways, one hand on the obstacle. Swing both legs in front as in the side jump, the leg closest to
the obstacle first.
from running: proceed as above from a run-up, jumping as in the running side jump.

4. Jump over the obstacle feet between hands
from standing: put both hand son the obstacle, jump while pressing from the wrists, bring the legs between the arms, tucked in.
from running: proceed as above from a run-up, jumping on both feet.

When an obstacle is made of several horizontal bars arranged one above the other, proceed as follows.
1. Jump between the bars: put one hand on the lower bar, one on the higher bar. Jump between the bars, bringing the legs together in front first. Pull the body up with higher hand, push back with lower hand.
2. Vault over the higher bar: put both hands on higher bar, going on hand hold, then reach down to the lower bar with the left hand. Rotate the body toward the right above the bar, legs straight, holding and pushing with the lower hand. Let go with the hands and land.

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Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
« Reply #58 on: October 08, 2009, 08:14:41 PM »
5. Climbing
Climbing consists in raising or moving the body using the arms or the arms and legs from a suspension or a holding position. It is one of the most useful practical exercises: climbing is important in many different situations from reaching a high place to passing an elevated obstacle to fleeing from danger vertically. Climbing with the arms and legs recruits the muscles of the entire body, in particular the core and upper limbs. However, climbing can be a detrimental exercise: it requires violent efforts from muscles which physiological function is not the locomotion of the upper body; it can encourage an excessive development of upper body musculature and slow regular growth in teenagers; it requires a posture of the shoulders that compresses the thoracic cage. Climbing can also be very beneficial to the development of upper body strength, but only in moderate amounts and using the legs as much as possible to reduce the strain on upper limbs hold. Exercises to correct the posture of the shoulders should be combined with climbing whenever possible. Among the following exercises, almost none have a deforming effect. However, many of the playful exercises in gymnastics have a deforming effect and should be avoided. Progressive training in climbing starts with simple suspension exercises and climbs on ladders, double ropes or bars where the elbows can be kept in the plane of the shoulders and the chest open. Only then comes climbing on the rope, first using the feet. Finally, train topping out. Being able to climb some distance on the rope with only the arms is a good criterion of climbing abilities: other exercises come easily when this is mastered.

Climbing vertical ropes, bars, etc. fixed or free standing

1. Climbing with arms and legs, pinching the rope: hold the rope as high as possible, put the right knee and front of the ankle behind the
rope, the left calf pressing in front of it. Climb up with the arms, bend the legs bringing the knees up high. Press on the rope with the legs, bringing the arms up one after the other and continue. To go down, move the arms below one another in turn, while pressing on the rope with the legs.

2. Climbing with arms and legs, rope rolled around one leg: hold the rope as high as possible, pull up, bring the knees up. Let the rope
go between the thighs, rolling it around one leg behind the calf onto the front of the ankle. Press on the rope with the sole of the other foot at the ankle. Take the hands off the rope one after the other, reaching up, straightening the legs. Pull up again, letting go of the rope with the legs or letting it slide around the leg. Bring the knees up, and roll the rope as
before. When the rope is free standing, bring the legs forward rather than keeping them vertical, to provide a better grip for the feet. To go down, move the arms below one another in turn, while pressing on the rope with the legs. This climbing method requires
more work from the legs, but the pose can be held for a longer time, to rest the arms or to free one or both hands; if letting go of both hands, the rope must go behind the back to avoid falling backward.

3. Climbing with the arms only: hold the rope as high as possible, reach up with one hand alternatively, keeping the legs bent up, rope
between the legs or to the side. Go down in the same way. This method is useful to reach quickly a close height or to momentarily
relieve the legs in a climb. It is an important exercise to practice for the climbing muscles.

4. Climbing on two ropes: grab one rope in each hand, and climb using one of the above methods, rolling one rope around the leg if needed. This method has little practical use, but is a great exercise for practicing, keeping the chest open and the shoulders
out.

Climbing inclined ropes and chains
Inclined ropes are ropes fixed at both ends, having some inclination, even to be horizontal. It is useful for climbing on scaffolds, going down from a window to the ground with a rope in a fire, etc.

1. Climbing with both hands, rope under the knee: to go up or down, keep the rope between the legs, folding one or both calves on the rope, or bring the legs with calf on the rope one after the other, moving opposite arm and leg at the same time, or keep the rope on the side, one calf resting on it. Hands are moved one after the other in all cases. This climb should be practiced going up and down,
head first or feet first. Keeping the head higher is the most efficient method. For ropes making an arc, if the head
starts higher, it will become lower than the feet past the middle of the rope. To always keep the head higher, proceed as follows: at the middle, if the right leg is folded above the rope, turn the body to the right and reach beyond the leg with the right hand, then the left while bending the leg to keep it engaged on the rope. Bring the left leg under the rope, then fold it above the rope before removing the right leg. Note that turning to the other side would make the leg go right away.

2. Climbing with both hands, one heel hooked on the rope: same method as above, using the heel rather than the folded leg.

3. Climbing above the rope: it is sometimes necessary to climb like this to reach an object or free one or both hands. Hold the
rope with both hands and one leg, foot hooked on the rope, the other leg straight and balancing. This method is completely
unpractical on arc-shaped ropes.

4. Climbing with the hands only: being suspended by the hands, move one hand after the other to progress up or down.
This method is a good strengthening exercise, and is useful for instance if the legs were to slip from the rope.

Climbing beams, masts, columns and other vertical bars
This way of climbing can be useful to reach a ceiling from a side beam, to move around a boat, to climb trees, etc.

1. Climbing with crossed arms, leg front and back: grab the mast as high as possible with both arms
crossed, hugging the mast, bend up the legs as much as possible, one with the calf around the mast, the other
with the front of the foot pressing against the mast. Extend the legs and reach up with both arms, then hug
the mast tightly while bending the legs up, etc. To go down, perform the same movements in opposite order.
This method is the most effective unless the mast is too thick.

2. Climbing with crossed legs: here, both legs are kept around the mast and crossed. A successive pressing of the upper and lower limbs as above allows to go up or down. This method is not very good to go up, but is efficient for going down or staying at some level,
on masts of limited width.

3. Climbing with arms holding the mast, legs on both sides: this is a method for a mast that is too wide to cross arms or legs around. The lower limbs are used by strongly pressing against the sides of the mast with the feet and the knees.

4. Climbing with hands and the feet, without pressing the knees: this method is preferably used bare feet and with masts of smaller width or even a straight rope. It is a harder way, but faster than the other techniques.

All these climbing techniques have a particularly intense effect on the abductor muscles of the legs.

Climbing ladders and vertical parallel bars, straight or inclined
There are two sorts of ladders: rope ladders and regular wooden or metal ladders. Climbing on rope ladders can be done as follows:

1. Climbing on the ladder: grab the sides of the ladder as high as possible, put both feet on a rung, knees open and out, weight on
the outside of the feet. Reach up on the side with the left hand while moving the right foot up one rung, and repeat on the other
side. Use the same method to go down. To be efficient, move the arm and leg simultaneously while keeping the torso straight, and
avoid letting the legs go forward which would require more work from the arms.

2. Climbing on the side of the ladder: grab one side of the ladder, put both heels on a rung, feet pointing outside and legs around the ladder side. Climb as above, moving one arm and opposite foot at the same time. This method is much faster and easier than the first one.

On wood or metal ladders, one can use the following techniques:
1. Climbing on top or under with the hands and feet: put the feet on the rungs and the hands either on the side or the rungs. Go up moving either the same leg and arm or the opposite leg and arm (better solution) at the same time. When climbing from the
underside of an inclined ladder, pushing hard with the legs and keeping the body close to the ladder will lower the work of the arms. Climbing on top of the ladder being easy, this skill must be practiced to increase speed walking and even running on the rungs.

2. Climbing under the ladder with the hands only (inclined ladders): put the hands on a rung, go up or down by moving the hands, keeping the rest of the body hanging straight. This method is the most practical one in the case of very inclined or nearly horizontal ladders. It is also a great exercise for the climbing muscles. It is sometimes necessary to go under the ladder from above, or on top from below, without going all the way up or down. This exercise is easy when the ladder is fixed, but otherwise you must proceed
as follows to avoid tipping it: being above and close to the ladder, bring the left foot on the right side of the rung, and the right leg outside the ladder. Bring the left hand to grab the right side, at shoulder height. Then, reach under the ladder with the right hand for the rung just above the left hand, aiming far from the body. Pull hard with the right arm, bring the right foot under the ladder, onto the same rung as the left foot. Finish by bringing the left foot and hand on the underside of the ladder. Use a similar technique to go from under to be on top of the ladder.

A ladder may have broken rungs; one can still climb it using one of the following methods designed for any type of vertical or inclined
parallel bars:
1. Climbing with hands and feet, knees inside or outside (vertical bars): reach up the bars with the hands, go up by flexing
the arms. Bend the legs and press them against the bars, either knees inside and feet outside or knees outside and feet inside. Press
in or out with the knees, depending on their position, and reach up with the hands. Bend the legs up, and repeat the motion. Same
method for going down.
2. Climbing on inclined bars: from above: do as in the previous method. From under: bring the bars in the fold of the knees or the
heels as in the climbing methods for a single bar.

Climbing along a wall
Climbing up and down walls finds many applications, whether to escape a fire, go down a well, get out of the water, using a rope, a
beam or the surface of the wall. The ways to climb up ropes, beams, etc, are as follows:

1. Climbing with the hands and feet: grab the rope, pole, beam with the hands and place it between the legs or to one side. Bring the
legs up on the wall, knees as open and high as possible, feet pointing outward. Climb by moving hands and feet in succession, or moving opposite limbs together, or moving on side after the other. The most efficient method consists in keeping the rope between the legs and moving opposite limbs together. The legs provide a push upward and slightly away for the wall. The body must stay
close to the wall, the knees out and open to reduce the work of the arms and climb faster.

2. Climbing with the hands, holding the rope between the thighs, feet resting on the wall: reach up with the arms on the
rope, bend arms and legs, press the rope between the thighs, crossing the legs if needed, and use the feet to stay away from
the wall. Reach up with hands and repeat. This method is useful when the wall is too slippery for the feet, and the rope
can be kept far enough from the wall.

Climbing can also be done without any device, with one of the following methods.
1. Climbing using the wall surface: if the wall has an irregular surface, holds, etc, one can climb using these to rest the hands
and feet, keeping the body close to the surface of the wall.
2. Climbing with the help of someone: the helper squats facing the wall, hands resting on it. Stand and balance on his shoulders, hands on the wall. The helper then stands up with the climber. If needed, he can grab the climber's feet and extend the arms further up. Alternatively, the helper can stand back against the wall, hands crossed in front, palms up. The climber puts a foot on the hands and walk up, to go further he can put his other foot on the helper's shoulder.
3. Climbing with two helpers: the two helpers kneel sideways to the wall, facing each other, closest knee to the wall on the ground. They lock the opposite hands, palms up. The climber steps on the hands and puts his hands on the wall, then the helpers stand up, using their free hand against the wall. Alternatively, the helpers can stand facing the wall, locking the inside hand between them, and the climber steps first on their hands then on their shoulders.

Pulling oneself up
Pulling oneself up consists in going from a suspension to a hold on the arms, or going from below to above the obstacle. Pulling
up is probably the most important climbing exercise, as it is almost impossible to finish a climb without having to get on top
of something.
1. Pulling up by rotating the body backward: from a suspension under the beam, pull up with the arms, bring the legs as high as possible in front of the beam, then above by bending the body backward, still pulling with the arms. Keep rotating until the stomach is above the beam, then hold straight.
Go down by the opposite movement. This method has very few practical applications, as it requires a bar with leg space and small enough to provide a good grip. However, it is a good exercise of the core muscles. To that end, it can be made harder by bringing the
legs up high before doing the pull-up with the arms.

2. Pulling up on one leg and the forearms or wrists: from a suspension under the beam, pull up with the arms, bring the legs as high as possible in front of the beam, then lean the body to the right and hook the right leg, calf above the beam, on the right side of the hand. Get on top by either bringing the forearms flat on the object, then spreading apart the hands, or using the wrists, bringing the forearms straight up above the beam. In any case, swinging the other leg up and down will provide momentum for the climb just before getting on top.
Once up, unhook the leg to go onto a straight hold. Go down by the opposite movement. This method is the easiest for pulling
up, but requires a bar or a small beam with good grip and enough space to swing the leg.

3. Pulling up on the forearms: from a suspension with hands close, pull up with the arms while bringing the legs up high.
Bring both forearms up on the beam, letting go with the hands, and swinging the legs vigorously up and down to help the tilt of
the body forward above the beam. Get above the bar spreading the hands apart, and rest the stomach on the bar before going
into the holding posture. Go down with the opposite movement.

If climbing a wall or if there are objects behind the bar, the legs can use them to push up and away and help in the pulling
motion. This method is the most practical in most circumstances.

4. Pulling up alternatively on the wrists: from a suspension, pull up with the arms while bringing the legs up in front. Bring
the weight of the body on the left wrist, and make the right arm vertical. Shift the weight to the right side with a slight left torsion
of the body, and pull the left forearm above the bar, helping by moving the legs up and down. Push strongly with the arms to
rest the stomach on the bar before going into the holding posture. Go down with the opposite movement. As before, if
there are objects or a wall under the bar, the legs can use them to push up. This method is convenient on bars with a good grip,
and does not require to let go like the previous method.

5. Pulling up simultaneously on the wrists: from a suspension, pull up with the arms while bringing the legs up in front.
Engage the wrists above the object with a strong push, bringing the weight on the hands flat toward the back of the palm,
turning the fingers inward if needed. As the wrists are engaged, bend the arms, then vigorously swing the legs up and down
and pull over the bar, keeping the elbows close to the body. From there, reach the holding posture. Go down with the opposite movement. As before, if there are objects or a wall under the bar, the legs can use them to push up. This method is not much harder than the previous one, and depends on the good placement of the wrists and the swinging of the legs. Of all methods, it is the fastest.

Reaching high places without vertigo
To reach a high place, one must first become insensitive to vertigo. Vertigo is a sort of stunned state where one looses will power and the proper notion of things, caused by feeling the void below or lacking confidence. One can conquer vertigo with gradual exercises meant to improve balance and reduce the fear of the void.
1. Balancing: on an elevated object, perform the following exercises: forward raise of the leg; backward raise of the leg; side raise of the leg; forward balancing of the leg; backward balancing of the leg; side balancing of the leg. The hands can follow the fundamental positions or help maintain balance.
2. Fighting the void: gradually go onto higher and higher places, first using safe and easy means: stairwells, ladders,
stools, etc. Once up onto a safe location, look down toward the ground. When more assured, climb up with some of the more
demanding climbing methods described above.

Reaching a hazardous spot
One may have to stay on a spot after climbing, to take a break, help someone, recover an object, etc. This is not an issue if the
spot is safe, but is harder if there are dangers of losing balance or falling.
After a climb followed by a pulling up, we find ourselves holding on the arms and stomach, and we seek to leave this posture to
sit, straddle or stand on the obstacle depending on the circumstances. The following exercises must be done on a low
object first, before trying them on high places.

1. Sitting from a straight hold: turn around on one arm, letting go with the other hand and leaning the body forward, or bring
one leg over the object, then the other. Do the opposite to go back to a hold.
2. Straddling from a straight hold: bring one leg over the object. Do the opposite to go back to a hold.
3. Standing from a straight hold: bring the knees one after the other on top of the object, then stand up. Do the opposite to go
back to a hold.
4. From standing, straddle the object and back: bring the feet together, bend the legs down, put the hands on the object,
close to the feet, fingers out. Bring the weight of the body on the wrists and lean slightly forward, move the feet slowly on
both sides of the object, sit. To go back up, put the hands close to the thighs on the object, swing the legs a couple of times
backward and get the feet on the object, then stand up.

Passing a dangerous spot
By a dangerous spot we mean a narrow passage, beam, bar from which a fall is possible. Depending on the type of obstacle, use one of the following methods:
1. From a hold, move sideways: to go left, press the stomach and bring the right hand next to the right thigh, fingers forward.
Bring the left hand out and pull the body up and toward the left hand, then go back on the stomach. Repeat the move to keep
going left, or reverse to go right.
2. From sitting, move sideways: to go left, bring the right hand next to the right thigh, fingers forward. Bring the left hand
out and raise the body up and toward the left hand, then sit back on the object. Repeat the move to keep going left, or
reverse to go right.
3. From straddling, move forward: reach in front of the thighs with the hands, thumbs up and fingers out, raise the body with
the arms, balancing with the legs and move to sit forward, hands touching the thighs.
4. From straddling, move backward: put the hands in front of the thighs, thumbs up and fingers out. Swing the legs forward
then back, raise the body backward with a strong impulse from the wrists, bring the hands close to the thighs again and go on.
5. From standing, walk forward: bring one foot in front of the other, heel pointing toward the middle of the other foot, arms
out for balancing, and keep going with the feet pointing out, eyes looking just in front of the feet. Smaller steps help
maintain a better balance.
6. From standing, walk backward: perform the same steps as in the forward walk, with extra care.
7. From standing, walk sideways: stand sideways, feet together pointing slightly out, arms loose. Bring the right foot to the right followed by the left foot, and so on.
Proceed similarly to go left.
8. From standing, turn around: turn on the spot using the arms to stay balanced.

Climbs of all sorts
Perform climbs and progressions of all sorts on horizontal, vertical or inclined surfaces using the arms and legs or the arms only. Use all sorts of buildings, trees, ropes, beams, etc.
Learn to stay in suspension in different ways: using one hand, one hand and elbow, one hand and arm locked at the armpit, both elbows, both arms, head down with hands and calves, head down with calves only, head down with one calf, etc. Train to maintain the
suspension for longer times, using will power to fight muscular tiredness and pain.
Such exercises are important for any situation where safety rests on a sure hold from the hand.


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Re: Hebert's "Practical Guide to Physical Education"
« Reply #59 on: October 08, 2009, 08:15:39 PM »
6. Lifting
Lifting consists in grasping with the hands objects of various size and shape to move them, lift them up or carry them. Often it is not only necessary to be skilled at handling large and heavy objects but also to have the required strength to carry them. In particular, it is important to be able to carry with caution a sick or injured person without a vehicle or a stretcher.
Lifting exercises have an intense effect on developing the muscles of the shoulders and the lumbar region. However, they have little or no hygienic effect, especially when the efforts are violent. It is important, when using lifting as a strengthening exercise, to carefully consider the weight of the objects to lift. Lighter objects are preferred, because the muscular development depends more on the
number of repetitions than on the intensity of the effort. For instance, it is better to lift a weight of 20 pounds 20 to 30 times than an object 4 or 5 times heavier just once.
An object is to be considered too heavy if it doesn't allow repeated lifting. To reach the ability to lift heavy weights, one must start with light objects and progressively increase the weight. As in any other exercise, only try to use maximum strength very occasionally.
One must be careful with lifting exercises. When done with weights that are too heavy, they have the following drawbacks: 1. they develop muscles very fast, which might be dangerous for persons of insufficient organic resistance; 2. they stop the growth of teenagers; 3. they stiffen the muscles and remove all their flexibility; 4. they tire the heart from the short and intense work they require; 5. they can produce accidents like hernias, forced heart, tearing of muscles and tendons, etc.

In general, the training of lifting skills is done in two ways: with objects like dumbbells, kettlebells, barbells, or stones of known weight, for a methodical gradation of the exercises; with objects of various shape and size requiring to be handled with dexterity, like bags, parcels, etc.

Lifting with two hands
1. Clean and press: place the heels on a line, feet together or slightly apart, flex the legs and bend down and forward. Grab
the object with both hands and lift it in one move to shoulder height, without resting it on the chest. Pause at the shoulders,
legs straight and arms bent, then extend the arms to bring the object over the head with straight arms.
During the extension of the arms, the legs are straight, the feet stay in the same position, the core is tight and the body is not
bent backward or to the side. This lifting method has little practical use, it is rather a conventional exercise for developing and measuring strength.

[translator's note: a long description of the timed clean and press of a 40kg weight used in measuring progress in lifting has been omitted here.]

2. Clean and jerk: place the heels on a line, feet together or slightly apart, flex the legs and bend down and forward. Grab the object with both hands and lift it in one move to shoulder height, without resting it on the chest. Pause at the shoulders, legs straight and arms bent, then throw the object to straight arms with a sudden flexing and extension of the legs, staggering the legs front and back or keeping them in the same position. Note that the raising of the object is almost entirely done by the motion of the lower limbs; the extension of the arms must start with the extension of the legs, not their flexing. This method is the most practical to lift any heavy
object.

3. Snatch: place the heels on a line, feet together or slightly apart, flex the legs and bend down and forward. Grab the object with both hands and lift it in one move all the way to straight arms, without pausing at shoulder level. Use the legs as much as possible, extending them vigorously and staggering them if needed. Pull the object vertically, as close as possible of the body. Increase its speed before reaching shoulder level, where the wrists are rotated. Straighten the arms before the end of the extension of the legs. This method is nothing more than a throw without a pause at the shoulders. It requires about the same strength as the clean and press, but is a more complete exercise. Like the throw, it has an intense effect on the muscular development of the legs.

Lifting with one hand
1. Clean and press: same procedure as in the two handed version. Grab the object with one hand, bring it to the shoulder
in one move. Pause at the shoulder, then extend the arm up to raise the object above the head, keeping the legs and body
straight.
2. Clean and jerk: same procedure as in the two handed version. Grab the object with one hand and bring it to the
shoulder in one move. Throw it upward to full extension of the arm with a strong flexing and extension of the legs.
3. Snatch: same procedure as in the two handed version. Grab the object with one hand, and pull upward to raise it all the way
to full extension of the arm in one move, with as much help as possible from the legs.

There are two other classical techniques for lifting with one hand, but with little practical interest:
4. Press pull: it is a sort of snatch with the arms kept fully extended. With feet apart, grab the object with one hand and place it between the legs, slightly behind. Raise the upper body suddenly to bring the object above the head in one move, keeping the arm straight.
5. Bend press: it is a sort of press without maintaining a correct posture. Grab the object with one hand and bring it to the shoulder in one move, then pause at the shoulder. Raise the object smoothly above the head to a full extension of the arm, bending the body
at will and flexing the legs to help.

Lifting and carrying objects and charges of all sorts
The classical exercises above can only be practiced with compact objects where the hand can have a good grip. They must be complemented with handling, lifting and carrying objects and charges of all sorts, in particular with the following exercise: lifting and carrying a bag on the shoulder. Whatever the shape or size of the object, the technique to use is always similar to lifting and carrying a bag. Start learning and training the proper form first with lighter bags filled with straw, cotton, seaweed or sawdust, then progressively move on to heavier bags by adding sand or earth.
Use one of the two following methods, depending on the weight of the bag. The descriptions are made for carrying the bag on the right shoulder, but carrying on the left shoulder follows the same rules.

1. Lifting a light bag: place the bag straight and well balanced, and grab it with both hands near its head. Lift it slightly from the
ground while flexing the legs, and turn it around to bring its head to rest on the right thigh, as close as possible from the
abdomen. Help the move by pushing vigorously with the right knee, keeping the legs flexed. When the bag flips upside down,
grab and hug the middle with both arms. Stand up while placing the bag well balanced on the right shoulder.

2. Lifting a heavy bag: place the bag flat on the ground, head to the left and bottom to the right. Grab the head with the left hand and the corner of the bottom with the right hand, close to the feet. Flexing the legs, lifting the bag in one move to rest it on both thighs, as close as possible from the abdomen. Let go with the left hand and grab around the middle with the left arm, then let go with the right hand to grab the further corner of the bottom. Flip the bag toward the left, in order to bring the bottom up and the head to rest on the right thigh, close to the abdomen, keeping the legs flexed. Let go with the right hand and grab around the middle with the right arm, then stand up while placing the bag well balanced on the right shoulder.

Two other exercises can be useful when several persons are available: lifting and carrying a beam, branch or tree, and stand a ladder vertically.
To lift onto the shoulder a beam or a long object, the team starts at the heavier end of the object, which is the first to load. They grab it and lift it up, leaving the other end on the ground. A sufficient number of persons bring it on their shoulder, then the others go to the lighter end and load it on their shoulder. The team can finally move to share evenly the weight.
To stand a ladder vertically, start by placing the foot or base of the ladder against a wall or a fixed object. Lift the other end, each person getting under the lifted part of the ladder after one another. Raise the arms vertically to raise the ladder into a vertical position. If there is no fixed object to use, one or two persons stand between the first and second rung, holding the ladder with the arms and leaning to bring their weight back as the ladder is raised. That way, the base of the ladder is constrained by their weight, and it can be raised as described above.

Transporting sick or injured persons
The carrying techniques depend on circumstances: the weight of the person to carry, the seriousness of his state, the distance to cover, the number of available persons, etc.
1. Holding the person by the middle under the arm: grab the person to carry lying down on the ground under the armpits, from the back. Lift him and carefully place him under an arm, his head in front and his legs back. The arm of the carrying person is
placed under the belly of the carried one, to keep the chest free. This method is most practical when the rescuer is alone, the rescued man is not too heavy and the distance to cover is short, or one needs to walk up some stairs, in which case the free arm can be used to grab the handrail.
2. Carrying the person in both arms: this method conventionally used to carry children is only practical if the person to carry is light and the distance to cover is short.
3. Carrying the person on the back: the carrier holds the leg of the carried person, who crosses his arms around the carrier's chest. This method allows to carry for a long distance someone hurt at the leg or the head with enough strength to hold on with his arms.
4. Carrying the person sitting on one or both shoulders: place the person on the back, then use the arms to raise him to the shoulders, or squat to let the person sit directly on the shoulders. To move on one shoulder, say the left, bring the right leg up over the head, then the carrier grabs both legs with the left arm while providing support with the right arm. If the carried person can stand, one can start from a squat and lift him directly on the shoulder. Like the previous method, these two are useful to carry over a long distance someone with minor injuries.
5. Carrying the person on his belly over the shoulder or the neck: on the shoulder: with the person lying down, kneel on his left and put the left knee on the ground. Grab him by the left arm, lifting his body to bring his chest to rest on the right leg. Hold him around the waist, left arm under and right arm over. Stand up and bring the person onto the left shoulder lifting him vigorously, so that his legs go over the left shoulder to the back, the upper body staying forward. Same method for the right shoulder.

On the neck: once the person is over the left shoulder, grab his legs with the other arm to bring them on the right shoulder.
6. Two-person carry by the arms and legs: one of the carriers lifts the person under the arm pits, and the other by the legs, placing himself between the legs or to the side. Or one person grabs the right arm and right leg, and the other the left arm and left leg. This method works for a person sick, injured or dead if the distance to cover is short.
7. The simple stretcher (with two carriers): the two carriers hold hands, left hand with right hand, grasping each other by the  phalanges. They squat down to let the carried person sit on their arms and place their arms around each carrier's neck. The
carriers move facing forward.
8. The chair: two carriers facing each other hold hands, left with right, grasping at the phalanges, and place their free arm
on each other's shoulders. The carried person sits on the arms and the carriers move sideways. This method allows to
carry over a long distance a person badly injured, unconscious or dead.
9. The double stretcher: four carriers in a square hold hands two by two at the phalanges or the wrists. The carried person lies down on this sort of bed, a fifth carrier behind may hold his head and a sixth one in front may hold his legs. This method works in any circumstance, provided there are enough carriers available.